UN Tourism | Bringing the world closer

Global code of ethics for tourism.

  • Private Sector Signatories of the Commitment
  • Ethics convention
  • World Committee on Tourism Ethics (WCTE)
  • The Responsible Tourist

Background of the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism

Share this content.

  • Share this article on facebook
  • Share this article on twitter
  • Share this article on linkedin

The Global Code of Ethics for Tourism sets a frame of reference for the responsible and sustainable development of world tourism. It draws inspiration from many similar declarations and industry codes that have come before and it adds new thinking that reflects our changing society at the beginning of the 21st century.

The Global Code of Ethics for Tourism (GCET) is a comprehensive set of principles whose purpose is to guide stakeholders in tourism development: central and local governments, local communities, the tourism industry and its professionals, as well as visitors, both international and domestic.

With international tourism forecast to reach 1.6 billion arrivals by 2020, members of the World Tourism Organization believe that the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism is needed to help minimize the negative impacts of tourism on the environment and on cultural heritage while maximizing the benefits for residents of tourism destinations. The Global Code of Ethics for Tourism is intended to be a living document. Read it. Circulate it widely. Participate in its implementation. Only with your cooperation can we safeguard the future of the tourism industry and expand the sector's contribution to economic prosperity, peace and understanding among all the nations of the world.

The Code was called for in a resolution of the UNWTO General Assembly, meeting in Istanbul, Turkey, in 1997. Over the following two years, a special committee for the preparation of the Code was formed and a draft document was prepared by the Secretary-General and the legal adviser to UNWTO, in consultation with UNWTO Business Council, UNWTO's Regional Commissions, and the UNWTO Executive Council.

The United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, meeting in New York in April, 1999, endorsed the concept of the Code and requested UNWTO to seek further input from the private sector, non-governmental organizations and labour organizations. Written comments on the Code were received from more than 70 UNWTO Member States and other entities. The resulting 10 point Global Code of Ethics for Tourism - the culmination of an extensive consultative process - was approved unanimously by the UNWTO General Assembly at its meeting in Santiago, Chile, in October 1999, in UNWTO resolution A/RES/406(XIII) .

The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), in its substantive session of July 2001, adopted a draft resolution on the Code of Ethics and called on the UN General Assembly to recognize the document. Official recognition by the UN General Assembly of the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism came on 21 December 2001, through UN resolution A/RES/56/212 , by which it further encouraged the World Tourism Organization to promote an effective follow-up of the Code.

Although it is not a legally binding document, Article 10 of the Code provides for a voluntary implementation mechanism through the recognition of the role of the World Committee on Tourism Ethics (WCTE), to which stakeholders may refer, on a voluntary basis, any matters concerning the application and interpretation of the document.

  • Regional Support Office for Asia and the Pacific (RSOAP)
  • Member States in Asia and the Pacific


© UNWTO Regional Support Office for Asia and the Pacific (RSOAP)

The Future of Ethics in Tourism

  • First Online: 23 August 2018

Cite this chapter

ethics in tourism industry

  • David A. Fennell 3  

3035 Accesses

3 Citations

This chapter develops a framework for the future of ethics in tourism. Beyond a brief summary of the history and evolution of ethics in tourism, the discussion turns to an overview of social contract theory and codes of ethics in tourism, with a focus on the UNWTO Global Code of Ethics for Tourism (GCET) and the new Framework Convention on codes of ethics, and finally to the proposed model on ethics. The model is organised according to two principal domains: (A) Political and Economic Governance, and (B) Moral Governance, with this latter domain structured according to macro social contracts, micro social contracts, and hypernorms, all of which are informed by a pluralistic and integrated approach to moral theory.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
  • Durable hardcover edition

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

ethics in tourism industry

Ethics and Heritage Tourism

ethics in tourism industry

Hedonism and Its (Negative) Impact on Tourism

ethics in tourism industry

Conspicuously ‘Doing’ Charity: Exploring the Relationship Between Doing Good and Doing Harm in Tourism

Airline pilots association international. (2017). Code of ethics . http://www.alpa.org/en/about-alpa/what-we-do/code-of-ethics

Akama, J. S. (2004). Neocolonialism, dependency and external control of Africa’s tourism industry: A case study of wildlife safari tourism in Kenya. In C. M. Hall & H. Tucker (Eds.), Tourism and postcolonialism: Contested discourses, identities and representations (pp. 140–152). London: Routledge.

Google Scholar  

American marketing Association. (n.d.). Statement of ethics . https://www.ama.org/AboutAMA/Pages/Statement-of-Ethics.aspx#StatementofEthics

American Society of Travel Agents. (2013). Code of ethics . http://www.asta.org/about/content.cfm?ItemNumber=745

Australian Tourism Industry Association. (1992). Code of environmental practice . Canberra: Australian Public Affairs Information Service.

Axelrod, R. (1984). The evolution of cooperation . New York: Basic Books.

Baker, R. (1999). Codes of ethics: Some history . Perspectives on the professions. Accessed October 15, 2004, from http://www.iit.edu/departments/csep/perspective/pers19_1fall99_2.html.

Bélanger, C. É., & Jolin, L. (2011). The International Organisation of Social Tourism (ISTO) working towards a right to holidays and tourism for all. Current Issues in Tourism, 14 (5), 475–482.

Article   Google Scholar  

Bianchi, R. V., & Stephenson, M. L. (2013). Deciphering tourism and citizenship in a globalized world. Tourism Management, 39 , 10–20.

Blake, B., & Becher, A. (2001). The new key to Costa Rica (15th ed.). Berkeley, CA: Ulysses Press.

Brady, F. N. (1985). A janus-headed model of ethical theory: Looking two ways at business/society issues. Academy of Management Review, 10 (3), 568–576.

British Columbia Ministry of Development, Industry and Trade. (1991). Developing code of ethics: British Columbia’s tourism industry . Victoria, BC: Ministry of Development, Trade and Tourism.

Britton, S. G. (1982). The political economy of tourism in the third world. Annals of Tourism Research, 9 (3), 331–358.

Buchholz, W. J. (1989). Deciphering professional codes of ethics. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 32 (2), 62–68.

Butcher, J. (2003). The moralization of tourism: Sun, sand…and saving the world? London: Routledge.

Camenisch, P. F. (1983). Grounding professional ethics in a pluralistic society . New York: Haven Publications.

Casagrandi, R., & Rinaldi, S. (2002). A theoretical approach to tourism sustainability. Conservation Ecology 6 (1), 13. [online] http://www.consecol.org/vol6/iss1/art13/

Castañeda, Q. E. (2012). The neo-liberal imperative of tourism: Rights and legitimization in the UNWTO global code of ethics for tourism. Practicing Anthropology, 34 (3), 47–51.

Coles, T., & Hall, C. M. (2011). Rights and regulation of travel and tourism mobility. Journal of Policy in Tourism, Leisure & Events, 3 (3), 209–223.

D’Amore, L. J. (1992). Promoting sustainable tourism—the Canadian approach. Tourism Management, 13 , 258–262.

D’Sa, E. (1999). Wanted: Tourists with a conscious. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 11 (2/3), 64–68.

de Grosbois, D. (2012). Corporate social responsibility reporting by the global hotel industry: Commitment, initiatives and performance. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 21 (3), 896–905.

Donaldson, T., & Dunfee, T. W. (1994). Toward a unified conception of business ethics: Interactive social contracts theory. Academy of Management Review, 19 , 252–284.

Dooley, M. (2001). The politics of exodus: Kierkegaard’s ethics of responsibility . New York: Forham.

Dubois, G. (2001, June 10–13). Codes of conduct, charters of ethics and international declarations for a sustainable development of tourism. Ethical content and implementation of voluntary initiatives in the tourism sector. Proceedings of the TTRA Annual Conference. (61– 83) Fortellyers, Florida.

Duval, D. T. (2008). Aeropolitics, global aviation networks and the regulation of international visitor flows. In T. E. Coles & C. M. Hall (Eds.), International business and tourism: Global issues, contemporary interactions (pp. 91–105). London: Routledge.

Dworkin, R. (1973). The original position. University of Chicago Law Review, 40 (3), 500–533.

ECPAT. (2012). The code . http://www.thecode.org

Edwards, J. (2006). Rights: Foundations, contents, hierarchy. Res Publica, 12 (3), 277–293.

Epler-Wood, M. (1993). Ecotourism guidelines for nature tour operators . North Bennington, VT: The Ecotourism Society.

Erisman, H. M. (1983). Tourism and cultural dependency in the West Indies. Annals of Tourism Research, 10 (3), 337–361.

European Green Capital. (2016). Ljubljana . http://www.greenljubljana.com/sites/www.zelenaljubljana.si/files/upload/files/resources/env-15-003_ljubljana_en-web.pdf

Faure, M. G., & Arsika, I. M. B. (2015). Settling disputes in the tourism industry: The global code of ethics for tourism and the world committee on tourism ethics. Santa Clara Journal of international Law, 13 (2), 375–415.

Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences. (2017). Media statement: Federation for the humanities and social sciences deeply concerned by U.S. executive order on immigration and refugees . Accessed January 30, 2017, from http://www.ideas-idees.ca/media/media-releases/media-statement-federation-humanities-and-social-sciences-deeply-concerned-us

Fennell, D. A. (2006). Evolution in tourism: The theory of reciprocal altruism and tourist-host interactions. Current Issues in Tourism, 9 (2), 105–124.

Fennell, D. A. (2008). Responsible tourism: A Kierkegaardian interpretation. Tourism Recreation Research, 33 (1), 3–12.

Fennell, D. A. (2014). Exploring the boundaries of a new moral order for tourism’s global code of ethics: an opinion piece on the position of animals in the tourism industry. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 22 (7), 983–996.

Fennell, D. A., & Malloy, D. C. (1995). Ethics and ecotourism: A comprehensive ethical model. Journal of Applied Recreation Research, 20 (3), 163–183.

Fennell, D. A., & Malloy, D. C. (2007). Codes of ethics in tourism: Practice, theory, synthesis . Clevedon: Channel View Publications.

Book   Google Scholar  

Ferguson, L. (2007). The United Nations world tourism organization. New Political Economy, 12 (4), 557–568.

Frank, R. (1988). Passion within reason: The strategic role of the emotions . New York: W.W. Norton & Co.

Frankel, M. S. (1989). Professional codes: Why, how, and with what impact? Journal of Business Ethics, 8 , 109–115.

Gjerdalen, G., & Williams, P. W. (2000). An evaluation of the utility of a whale watching code of conduct. Tourism Recreation Research, 25 (2), 27–37.

Goodwin, H., & Francis, J. (2003). Ethical and responsible tourism: Consumer trends in the UK. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 9 (3), 271–284.

Grimwood, B. S. R., & Doubleday, N. (2013). Illuminating traces: Enactments of responsibility in practices of Arctic river tourists and inhabitants. Journal of Ecotourism, 12 (2), 53–74.

Gutner, T. (2016). International organizations in world politics . Washington, DC: CQ Press.

Hall, C. M. (2007). Pro-poor tourism: Do tourism exchanges benefit primarily the countries of the south? In C. M. Hall (Ed.), Pro-poor tourism: Who benefits? Perspectives on tourism and poverty reduction (pp. 1–8). Toronto: Channel View Publications.

Chapter   Google Scholar  

Hall, C. M. (2008). Regulating the international trade in tourism services. In T. E. Coles & C. M. Hall (Eds.), International business and tourism: Global issues, contemporary interactions (pp. 33–54). London: Routledge.

Hall, C. M., & Tucker, H. (Eds.). (2004). Tourism and postcolonialism: Contested discourses, identities and representations . London: Routledge.

Hamilton, W. D. (1964). The genetical evolution of social behaviour (I and II). Journal of Theoretical Biology, 7 , 1–52.

Hamilton, C. (2003). Growth fetish . Crows Nest, NSW: Allen and Unwin.

Harvey, D. (2005). A brief history of neoliberalism . Oxford: Oxford University press.

Heidegger, M. (1966). Discourse on thinking . New York: Harper Torchbooks.

Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2007). Hostile meeting grounds: Encounters with the wretched of the earth and the tourist through tourism and terrorism in the 21st century. In P. M. Burns & M. Novelli (Eds.), Tourism and politics: Global frame-works and local realities (pp. 309–332). Kidlington: Elsevier.

Higgins-Desboilles, F. (2006). More than an “industry”: The forgotten power of tourism as a social force. Tourism Management, 27 , 1192–1208.

Higgins-Desboilles, F. (2008). Justice tourism and alternative globalisation. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 16 (3), 345–364.

Higgs-Kleyn, N., & Kapelianis, D. (1999). The role of professional codes in regulating ethical conduct. Journal of Business Ethics, 19 , 363–374.

Hills, T., & Lundgren, J. (1977). The impact of tourism in the Caribbean: A methodological study. Annals of Tourism Research, 4 (5), 248–267.

Hobbes, T. (1651/1957). Leviathan . New York: Oxford University Press.

Hodgkinson, C. (1983). The philosophy of leadership . Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Hodgkinson, C. (1996). Administrative philosophy . New York: Pergamon Press.

Holden, A. (2003). In need of a new environmental ethics for tourism? Annals of Tourism Research, 30 (1), 95–108.

Hultsman, J. (1995). Just tourism: An ethical framework. Annals of Tourism Research, 22 (3), 553–567.

Husbands, W., & Harrison, L. V. (1996). Practicing responsible tourism: Understanding tourism today to prepare for tomorrow. In W. Husbands & L. C. Harrison (Eds.), Practicing responsible tourism: International case studies in tourism planning, policy and development (pp. 1–15). New York: Wiley.

Isaac, R. K., & Hodge, D. (2011). An exploratory study: Justice tourism in controversial areas. The case of Palestine. Tourism Planning & Development, 8 (1), 101–108.

Jenkins, C. L. (1982). The effects of scale in tourism projects in developing countries. Annals of Tourism Research, 9 (2), 229–249.

Kant, I. (1785/2001). Fundamental principles of the metaphysics of morals (A. W. Wood, Trans.). New York: The Modern Library.

Ko, T. G. (2005). Development of a tourism sustainability assessment procedure: A conceptual approach. Tourism Management, 26 , 431–445.

L’Etang, J. (1992). A Kantian approach to codes of ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 11 , 737–744.

Lanfant, M. F., & Graburn, N. H. H. (1992). International tourism reconsidered: The principle of the alternative. In V. L. Smith & W. R. Eadington (Eds.), Tourism alternatives (pp. 88–112). Chichester: Wiley.

Levinas, E. (2004). Totality and infinity: An essay on exteriority (A. Lingis, Trans.). Pittsburgh, PA: Duquesne University Press.

Lovelock, B., & Lovelock, K. (2013). The ethics of tourism: Critical and applied perspectives . London: Routledge.

Malloy, D. C., & Fennell, D. A. (1998a). Ecotourism and ethics: moral development and organisational cultures. Journal of Travel Research, 36 , 47–56.

Malloy, D. C., & Fennell, D. A. (1998b). Codes of ethics and tourism: An exploratory content analysis. Tourism Management, 19 (5), 453–461.

Mason, P. (1997). Tourism codes of conduct in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic region. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 5 (2), 151–165.

Mason, P., & Mowforth, M. (1996). Codes of conduct in tourism. Progress in Tourism and Hospitality Research, 2 (2), 151–167.

McCloskey, H. J. (1965). Rights. The Philosophical Quarterly, 59 (15), 115–127.

Midwest Travel Writers Association. (2000). Code of professional responsibility . http://www.mtwa.org/Pages/0102ethics.html

Mies, M. (1997). Do we need a new ‘moral economy’? Canadian Women Studies, 17 (2), 12–20.

Mihalic, T. (2016). Sustainable-responsible tourism discourse – towards ‘responsustable’ tourism. Journal of Cleaner Production, 111 , 461–470.

Mihalic, T., & Fennell, D. A. (2015). In pursuit of a more just international tourism: The concept of trading tourism rights. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 23 (2), 188–206.

Mulgan, T. (2011). Ethics for a broken world: Imagining philosophy after catastrophe . Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

NGO Steering Committee Tourism Caucus. (1999). NGO paper on tourism . Accessed March 3, 1999, from www.igc.org/csdngo/csd-7/tour_csdi.htm

Nozick, R. (1974). Anarchy, state and Utopia . Oxford: Blackwell.

Payne, D., & Dimanche, F. (1996). Towards a code of conduct for the tourism industry: An ethics model. Journal of Business Ethics, 15 , 997–1007.

Pinker, S. (2002). The blank slate: The modern denial of human nature . New York: Viking.

Pratt, M. (2016). TripAdvisor takes a stand on animal welfare . https://www.thestar.com/business/2016/10/12/tripadvisor-takes-a-stand-on-animal-welfare.html

Przeclawski, K. (1996). Deontology of tourism. Progress in Tourism and Hospitality Research, 2 , 239–245.

Rawls, J. (1971). A theory of justice . Cambridge, MA: Belknap.

Rawls, J. (1999). The law of peoples . Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Ray, R. (2000). Management strategies in athletic training (2nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Republique de Maurice. (n.d.). Mauritian code of ethics for tourism . http://www.dodolidays.com/page_content-86-172

Rousseau, J. J. (1762/1979). The social contract . Middlesex: Penguin Books.

Scheyvens, R. (2002). Tourism for development: Empowering communities . Harlow: Prentice-Hall.

Seabrooke, J., & Burchill, J. (1994). Keep your shirt on: Nudity in western and third-world countries. New Statesman & Society, 7 (315), 22–25.

Sheldon, P. J., Fesenmaier, D. R., & Tribe, J. (2011). The Tourism Education Futures Initiative (TEFI): Activating change in tourism education. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 11 , 2–23.

Soper, K. (2008). Alternative hedonism, cultural theory and the role of aesthetic revisioning. Cultural Studies, 22 (5), 567–587.

Sreekumar, T. T. (2003). Why do we need an alternative code of ethics for tourism? Accessed January 2017, from http://www2.nau.edu/~clj5/Ethics/articles/Isbell20.pdf

Sterling, S. R. (2001). Sustainable education: Re-visiong learning and change . Green Cambridge: Books for the Schumacher Society.

Stevens, B. (1997). Hotel ethical codes: A content analysis. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 16 (3), 261–271.

Stilwell, F. (2002). Political economy: The contest of ideas . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Tobin, D. (n.d.). Whale watching in the Bay of Fundy . http://new-brunswick.net/new-brunswick/whales/ethics.html

Tourism Canada. (1993). Environmental business practice: Ethical codes for tourism. In S. Hawkes & P. Williams (Eds.), The greening of tourism: From principles to practice (pp. 81–93). Burnaby, BC: Simon Fraser University Central Duplicating.

Tourism Industry Association of Canada (TIC). (1991). Code of ethics and guidelines for sustainable tourism . In association with the National Roundtable on the Environment and Economy, Ottawa, Canada.

Townsend, P. (1987). Deprivation. Journal of Social Policy, 16 (2), 125–146.

Trivers, R. (1971). The evolution of reciprocal altruism. Quarterly Review Of Biology, 46 , 35–57.

Turner, L. (1976). The international division of leisure: Tourism and the Third World. Annals of Tourism Research, 4 (1), 12–24.

United Nations. (1948/2015). Universal declaration of human rights . Retrieved April 7, from http://www.un.org/en/udhrbook/pdf/udhr_booklet_en_web.pdf

United Nations. (1966). International covenant on economic, social and cultural rights (1976) . Retrieved April 7, from http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/ProfessionalInterest/cescr.pdf

UNWTO. (1999). Global code of ethics for tourism: For responsible tourism . http://cf.cdn.unwto.org/sites/all/files/docpdf/gcetbrochureglobalcodeen.pdf

UNWTO. (2017a). UNWTO statement on US travel ban. PR No. 17011, Madrid, Spain, 31 January 2017.

UNWTO. (2017b). Future international standard on accessible tourism for all . Accessed March 2, 2018, from http://media.unwto.org/press-release/2017-02-27/future-international-standard-accessible-tourism-all

UNWTO. (2017c). Approval or adoption of the UNWTO framework convention on tourism ethics . Accessed November 14, 2017, from http://cf.cdn.unwto.org/sites/all/files/docpdf/frameworkconventionontourismethics-esdt101117.pdf

UNWTO. (n.d.) Liberalisation with a human face . Accessed April 4, 2006, from http://www.world-tourism.org/liberalization/trade/Aviation%20-%20ICAO.pdf

Walzer, M. (1992). Moral minimalism. In W. R. Shea & G. A. Spadafora (Eds.), The twilight of probability: Ethics and politics . Canton, MA: Science History Publications.

Weeden, C. (2001). Ethical tourism: An opportunity for competitive advantage? Journal of Vacation Marketing, 8 (2), 141–153.

Wheeller, B. (1994). Egotourism, sustainable tourism and the environment–a symbiotic, symbolic or shambolic relationship. In A. V. Seaton (Ed.), Tourism: The state of the art . Chichester: Wiley.

Williams, O. F. (Ed.). (2000). Global codes of ethics: An idea whose time has come . Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.

Download references

Author information

Authors and affiliations.

Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, Canada

David A. Fennell

You can also search for this author in PubMed   Google Scholar

Corresponding author

Correspondence to David A. Fennell .

Editor information

Editors and affiliations.

Ulysses Foundation, Madrid, Spain

Eduardo Fayos-Solà

School of Events, Tourism and Hospitality Management, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, UK

Chris Cooper

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2019 Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature

About this chapter

Fennell, D.A. (2019). The Future of Ethics in Tourism. In: Fayos-Solà, E., Cooper, C. (eds) The Future of Tourism. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-89941-1_8

Download citation

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-89941-1_8

Published : 23 August 2018

Publisher Name : Springer, Cham

Print ISBN : 978-3-319-89940-4

Online ISBN : 978-3-319-89941-1

eBook Packages : Business and Management Business and Management (R0)

Share this chapter

Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.

Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative

  • Publish with us

Policies and ethics

  • Find a journal
  • Track your research

To read this content please select one of the options below:

Please note you do not have access to teaching notes, a systematic review of ethical issues in hospitality and tourism innovation.

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights

ISSN : 2514-9792

Article publication date: 25 March 2022

Issue publication date: 26 August 2022

The purpose of this paper is to identify the state of academic research on ethical issues connected to innovation in hospitality. Through a systematic review of the literature on this topic, the authors aim to offer a synthesis of research approaches and to provide proposals for future research.


The authors conducted searches in four different databases, to select articles based on the inclusion criteria: the articles should combine the topics of innovation and hospitality/tourism and have been published between 2011 and 2021. Through an iterative screening process, the authors selected 71 research articles.

This paper distinguishes two categories of approaches to the topic: a first and predominant approach in which innovations are derived from evolving ethical insights and a more dispersed second category that explores the ethical implications of innovations. In the first category, articles about ethical leadership represent the greatest number, followed by those about corporate social responsibility (CSR). Almost half of the papers studied followed qualitative methods.

Research limitations/implications

The authors argue that the prevalent perspective represents a specific interpretation of the social role of private companies, but that the ethical effects of commercial or technological innovations deserve more attention. Despite a rigorous procedure in reviewing the literature systematically, they also discuss that there are multiple relevant debates that do not refer explicitly to ethical aspects, but that should be included in the topic.

Practical implications

Addressing the research gaps in ethics and innovation in hospitality must provide practitioners with an understanding of the ramifications of their innovations and with criteria for ethical decision-making.

Social implications

The current orientation of the debate underscores ethical innovations in hospitality and tourism, whilst ethical risks of other developments in these industries may remain understudied.


This review updates earlier reviews of ethical issues in hospitality and tourism, whilst the link to innovation and the distinction of two categories, based on the causal direction between ethical considerations and innovation, identify an imbalance in the study of the topic.

  • Ethical leadership
  • Corporate social responsibility (CSR)
  • Ethical consumer behavior
  • Tourism growth
  • Technological innovation

Oskam, J.A. and De Visser-Amundson, A. (2022), "A systematic review of ethical issues in hospitality and tourism innovation", Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights , Vol. 5 No. 4, pp. 782-803. https://doi.org/10.1108/JHTI-11-2021-0305

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited

Related articles

We’re listening — tell us what you think, something didn’t work….

Report bugs here

All feedback is valuable

Please share your general feedback

Join us on our journey

Platform update page.

Visit emeraldpublishing.com/platformupdate to discover the latest news and updates

Questions & More Information

Answers to the most commonly asked questions here

  • International edition
  • Australia edition
  • Europe edition

Shangri-La Hotel, Bangkok

Integrating ethics into tourism: beyond codes of conduct

As the world's largest service industry, contributing an estimated 5% to worldwide GDP, tourism creates both jobs and wealth but also has clear social and environmental consequences. The industry is therefore faced with a range of increasingly pressing challenges.

Over the last few years, hotel companies have made a determined effort to deal with the impact their business activities have on the environment, particularly by measuring and reducing their carbon and water footprints. Both major international hospitality companies and small businesses recognise that there are tangible benefits in doing this, including real efficiency gains and an improved corporate reputation.

Another closely linked challenge for companies is how to manage the ethical operation of their business. Ethical issues arise in four main areas: the supply chain, the local community (in the tourism destination), the workplace, and customers. There may be concerns about forced labour in the supply chain or exploitation of migrant workers in the workplace for example; or local people may – often rightly – perceive that they have little or no share in the economic benefits of tourism, while bearing a disproportionate burden from environmental degradation.

In 1999, the UN World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) devised and adopted a global code of ethics for tourism, designed to minimise the negative effects of tourism activity on destinations and local communities, which was officially recognised by the UN in 2001. Now, the UNWTO is holding the first International Congress on Ethics and Tourism (15-16 September 2011, Madrid), arguably the first opportunity to evaluate whether the industry has moved beyond symbolic statements and agreed codes to concrete actions.

Encouragingly, there is evidence that the hotel industry is assuming a proactive, collective approach to human rights and business ethics, incorporating human rights risk mapping, employee training on responsible business, and sustainable local benefits. Major hotel companies have taken significant steps in the past decade to integrate policies on human rights into their stated policies on business conduct and ethics.

How in practice can the global hospitality industry advance ethical and socially responsible tourism? One concrete initiative is the Youth Career Initiative supported by several major international hotel companies. This six-month education programme gives disadvantaged young people aged 18 to 21 hands-on experience, and training in an international hotel. Apart from gaining life and work skills, young participants are empowered to make informed career choices, enabling them to improve their employability and enhance their long-term social and economic opportunities.

Over 420 young people in 11 countries participate in the programme every year in more than 50 leading hotels. The high number (85%) of young people graduating from this scheme to secure employment in the hotel industry or in further education shows that this project effectively tackles key issues of youth unemployment and social exclusion, poverty, and exploitation. In addition, a pilot programme to rehabilitate survivors of human trafficking will be run soon in hotels in Mexico, Brazil and Vietnam.

Among specific initiatives, Marriott International relaunched their business ethics awareness programme last year, which provides employees with the tools to identify potential ethical and compliance issues and raise them with the appropriate leaders within the organisation. This includes a new training video for all new hire inductions, plus quarterly bulletins with updates on tools for prevention. The company recently developed human rights and protection of children training for their security officers and all property-based employees, which is being rolled-out across their global operations.

Another company with a proactive ethical policy is Shangri-La Hotels and Resorts, a Hong Kong-based hotel group operating globally but with half of its properties in China. They launched a supplier code of conduct in 2009 (now externally audited) and conduct site visits to their top 150 suppliers to check employee wages and conditions, health and safety, management systems and environmental practices; they have a group-wide programme linking hotels with a local school or orphanage for five to 10 years, including providing training in hotel skills.

The examples highlighted still represent best practice rather than industry-wide reality. There is much more to be done. A code of ethics and human rights policy is no longer enough: companies need to show practical examples of where they have made a difference through the supply chain, local communities, their workplace, and to their customers' behaviour. Embedding ethics into core business strategy makes good business sense as it potentially enhances a company's profits, management effectiveness, public image and employee relations.

Hospitality companies that do take a long-term view, and marry high ethical standards with practical measures, are likely to prove the winners in a fast-changing industry. The Madrid UNWTO conference should provide an interesting snapshot of whether the industry has really grasped the nature of this challenge.

Francesca Leadlay is programme manager, sustainability, at the International Tourism Partnership , a global programme of the International Business Leaders Forum

This content is brought to you by Guardian Professional . Become a GSB member to get more stories like this direct to your inbox

  • Guardian sustainable business
  • Sustainable business blog

Comments (…)

Most viewed.

Tourism Teacher

29 ways to be an ETHICAL tourist

Disclaimer: Some posts on Tourism Teacher may contain affiliate links. If you appreciate this content, you can show your support by making a purchase through these links or by buying me a coffee . Thank you for your support!

Are you an ethical tourist?

We all need to think about the impacts that our actions have on the world around us. Yes, it is extremely difficult (if possible at all) to be 100% ethical for 100% of the time. BUT, there are many things that we CAN do to help to protect and preserve the environment, society and the economy. In this article I will tell you what YOU can do to help! Read on…

What is an ethical tourist?

Don’t buy animal souvenirs, don’t touch animals, don’t feed wild animals, avoid unethical wildlife tourism, don’t drop litter, don’t touch coral, try slow tourism , opt for eco-friendly transportation options , turn off the lights, try ecotourism, avoid plastic, recycle , don’t waste water, stick to main paths, learn the local language , be respectful of local customs and traditions , immerse yourself into local life, be sensitive , don’t give to beggars, treat people fairly , avoid sex tourism , don’t take photos of people without their permission , avoid multinational chain hotels, limit economic leakage where you can, leave positive reviews for local businesses, consider who you are booking your holiday with, haggle fairly.

Ethical tourism is a concept that has been developed in response to the critiques of  mass tourism . Essentially, ethical tourism encourages tourists to move away from’ the four Ss’ (Sun, Sea, Sand and Sex), and exchange these for ‘the three Ts’ (Travelling, Trekking and Trucking).

To put it simply,  ethical tourism is a form of responsible tourism . An ethical tourist considers the impact of their actions with regards to the three pillars of  sustainable tourism – the environment, the economy and society. They minimise negative impacts and maximise the positive impacts.

Sounds great, doesn’t it? The problem is however, that many people do not know how to be an ethical tourist! And that’s where this article comes in…

ethical tourist

How to be an ethical tourist

As I explain in my article about sustainable tourism , there are three pillars- the environment, society and the economy. In order to be an ethical tourist, you should consider these three areas and how your actions could have negative consequences. So, lets take a look at some examples from each of these pillars…

How to be an ethical tourist: Protect the environment

ethical tourist

If you want to be an ethical tourist , you must demonstrate a commitment to reducing any negative impacts on the environment. Some of the things that you can do include:

Animal souvenirs, like ivory or teeth, fur rugs or reptile-skin fashion accessories, are unethical in many ways. They often perpetuate a black market environment. In many cases animals are treated poorly and then killed just for their teeth, skin, fur, tusks, bones, blood and so on.

Animals are sentient beings and if they don’t want to be touched, we should respect that. It can also be dangerous for you, if they attack, and for the animals if you pass on any germs. Your scent may linger, too, making the animal a target. It is better to just leave animals alone unless this is a safe and organised activity.

Feeding wild animals is a no-go in terms of being an ethical tourist. Not only does it lead to animas being dependent on this food source, it can also lead to artificially high population sizes. This is unsustainable, especially in places where tourism is seasonal.

If you are planning an animal experience as part of your trip, do your research. Zoos and safaris are great ways to get up close and personal with various animals, and many are completely fine to visit as an ethical tourist. However there are also places who treat their captive animals poorly, and these are the businesses you want to avoid.

Dropping litter is terrible for the environment. It can be dangerous to animals, it looks ugly and it is generally an environmental pollutant. Keep it in your bag or pocket if there is no bin nearby!

Coral is beautiful. There is no denying this, but you cannot touch it. Be an ethical tourist and admire it from afar. Coral is a protective layer, and it is very delicate – human touch and the oils form our skin can break it down, killing not only the coral itself but the creatures who live among it.

Slow tourism is a brilliant way to practise ethical tourism. It steers away from mass tourism and busy days, cramming everything in before you move on to the next place. It focuses on spending longer in one area, getting to know the environment and getting involved in local life. Just as enjoyable as general tourism, and much more rewarding!

Walking somewhere is always the best option. It actually gives you more chance to see the sights and get to know your location, plus it’s FREE. If your destination is too far to walk to, consider the bus, train or tram. This is often a low-cost way to get from A to B, and much more eco-friendly than hiring a car or booking an Uber .

Just as you would at home, turn off the lights in your accommodation when you don’t need them on. This is a simple way to ensure that you are being as much of an ethical tourist as possible!

It goes without saying that ecotourism is much more ethical than other forms of tourism. It allows you to keep your carbon footprint low, give back to the community and really take in the natural beauty of an area.

Take reusable straws and canvas bags with you, fill up your water bottle before you head out for the day… Avoiding plastic on holiday really isn’t that difficult, and it is so important in terms of being an ethical tourist. You’ll definitely be looking after the environment!

Make a conscious effort to recycle what you can. If you’re staying in an Airbnb for example, check out whether or not there is separate bin section for recyclable waste. And when you’re out and about, see if the public bins have a recycling option too. In Germany, for example, plastic bottles can be fed into a machine in exchange for coins!

Again, another simple but effective way to be an ethical tourist. Turn the tap off while you’re doing your teeth, take shorter showers and so on.

Avoid wandering off into the wilderness, as it may be quite a delicate area. Stick to the official paths and you won’t risk endangering any form of wildlife!

How to be an ethical tourist: Protect society

ethical tourist

Ethical tourists also have a care and consideration for society and the communities that they interact with as part of their tourist experience. Here are some things that you can do to be an ethical tourist:

A great way to be an ethical tourist is to learn a few phrases in the local language. It shows that you are willing to connect with your destination. Some phrases to translate are:

  • Thank you (so much)
  • Can I have the bill please?
  • Where is the [insert destination here e.g train station]?
  • What time is it?
  • Can I have a bag please?
  • How are you?
  • I’d like to check in/check out please

If there are rules in places regarding clothing – like what you should wear when visiting a mosque, for example – then respecting this is very important. Don’t mock local traditions. Take part if invited to, but it is always best to watch from the sidelines and appreciate local culture .

Eat at small local restaurants, ask natives for their recommendations, chat to the people around you. Don’t spend all of your time doing the top 10 guidebook recommendations – find a local project to help out with, meander through the town and so on!

When it comes to interacting with locals, just be sensitive. Think about what you’re saying, and what you’re doing. Be careful, and you will find yourself rewarded. Being an ethical tourist means supporting the locals, looking after the area and paying attention to what you do/say.

This might be confusing as an ethical tourist but you should not give to beggars. Many are part of organised crime rings, and your money won’t be benefitting anybody. If you are hoping to help the homeless community wherever you are visiting, look out for local and national initiatives you can donate to or raise awareness of.

When visiting a new place, just treat people how you want to be treated. Be kind, be fair and be polite.

Sex tourism is a big and ever-growing industry. That does not mean it is something to be engaged with – from Amsterdam to the Dominican Republic , it is a big issue for many. There is a lot of exploitation and law-breaking involved in sex tourism, and getting involved with it is not conducive with being an ethical tourist.

This is a big one. People just existing and living their day to day lives are not there to be your unwilling photography subject. They’re just doing them – so if you want to photograph them for whatever reason, ask first.

How to be an ethical tourist: Protect the economy

economic impacts of tourism

Lastly, an ethical tourist should be mindful of their economic behaviour. Here are some things that you can do to ensure that you have a positive impact, where possible:

This is a great way to be an ethical tourist . Shopping local means that your money is supporting the economy directly, rather than going through corporations. It also means you can access better quality products. You are supporting a small business owner, which is always appreciated!

When it comes to finding accommodation, multinational chain hotels aren’t great in terms of ethical tourism. They are faceless and take up a lot of space, and often do not pay their staff fairly. Look for more independent options.

Economic leakage in tourism is where you travel to another country but the money you spend there ends up elsewhere. So for example, booking a tour through a multinational corporation instead of directly through a local business – this is an example of economic leakage. Try to avoid this in order to be an ethical tourist.

A positive review can help a small or local business so much. It is free for you to do, and can attract attention and new customers. It is a great way to give back to the community, and you will definitely feel good about yourself.

When booking a trip, ensure the businesses you are using and booking through have ethical values that align with your own. See if they offset carbon emissions, or donate to charity on guests’ behalves. If they have been involved in any major scandals exploiting their staff or the local community, or damaging the local environment, it is best to book with someone else…

Haggling is a huge part of shopping as a tourist, especially in markets in places like Greece, Turkey and Morocco. But when you do haggle, remember that these people are trying to make a living. Don’t force them into agreeing to super low prices – be respectful as you try to get your bargain!

If you are not an ethical tourist already then you can be now that I have given you these 29 handy tips!

Liked this article? Click to share!

Air Vanuatu enters voluntary liquidation, leaving passengers stranded in Australia and Vanuatu

Airport workers load up an Air Vanuatu plane.

Air Vanuatu has entered voluntary liquidation and authorities are unable to say when flights will resume, leaving Australian travellers and ni-Vanuatu people stranded across the two countries.

Ernst & Young confirmed it took control of the airline after the Vanuatu government appointed it as voluntary liquidator of the company.

Air Vanuatu said on Thursday afternoon all international flights until Sunday were cancelled, and flights after that day were "under review".

A 737 plane at a gate at Sydney's international airport.

Ernst & Young said it would conduct safety and maintenance checks before resuming normal operations.

"The liquidators intend to resume normal trading as soon as possible, while considering all opportunities to place the carrier on a stronger footing," Ernst & Young said in a statement.

"Affected travellers will be informed of this disruption and re-booked on flights as soon as operations resume.

"The existing management team will remain in place and will work closely with the liquidators through this process."

Uncertain time frame for return

Vanuatu's Finance Minister John Salong, whose role makes him a shareholder of Air Vanuatu, said no-one knows when the airline will resume its services.

"The first thing they have to do is, one, assure the employees that it's business as usual, so they can take care of the customers that are currently stranded and customers that have been making bookings," he said.

"The second thing is, of course, to look at ensuring that everything is safe, because we're talking about aircraft being in the air and safety has always been paramount for Air Vanuatu.

"The third thing is to deal with the suppliers so that we can have all the necessary processes in place so the business can run as per usual.

"So it may take a couple of weeks."

A small plane is loaded up on an outer island in Vanuatu.

Morgan Kelly, an Ernst & Young partner in turnaround and restructuring services, said the liquidators were working as quickly as possible so that passengers could get home.

"We have people who are stranded in all kinds of locations at the moment and also people who are stranded in Vanuatu trying to return home to their destinations," he said.

"At the moment we're working with all of our partner airlines, our codeshare airlines.

"And we're also working with other operators and the Vanuatu government agencies to try and come up with a solution as quickly as we can."

Vanuatu Tourism Office chief executive Adela Issachar Aru apologised to travellers affected by the flight cancellations.

She said the office was waiting for updated flight schedules from Air Vanuatu, and that these would be available soon.

'It's so shameful'

Ni-Vanuatu seasonal worker Gordon Kalotiti is stranded in Melbourne with more than 30 other workers, and is waiting to hear when they can return home.

The seasonal workers learnt of Air Vanuatu's flight cancellations at the city's airport on Thursday, after a long journey from regional Victoria.

"The weather is not really good … We must sleep around here, waiting for information," Mr Kalotiti said.

They were told to wait, and that they would be put on another flight home.

"The information that we have [is] the same information that we had yesterday. We are still waiting."

Mr Kalotiti said Air Vanuatu had a responsibility to find and pay for accommodation for the seasonal workers while they wait.

Men sit down and stand waiting at the airport.

"I came to Australia to work, and to take money back home. And it doesn't make sense to me that if we are stranded here, we will pay our own accommodation and food and other stuff.

"What I'm seeing is not fair."

He called on the Vanuatu government to fix the problems affecting Air Vanuatu.

"It's so shameful that we are here," he said.

'It's left people agitated'

Sally Witchalls, from Canberra, was due to fly out of Vanuatu's capital city Port Vila on Wednesday but learnt of the flight cancellations as she checked out of her hotel.

She is still waiting along with four other friends to hear about alternative flights home.

"We're in the dark here. There's very little communication from the airlines, from Air Vanuatu or any other carrier services they're linked with as well."

A palm tree and other green foliage with buildings, a bay and headland in the background.

She tried to book a flight departing later in the week, but it fell through.

"We're waiting and we're hoping and hopefully we'll get some information today."

Her travel insurers have told her she won't be covered in cases where the airline goes into liquidation, and she and her friends are working out how they will pay for some of their additional accommodation.

"It does leave you a little bit worried about what travel insurance is for," she said.

Ms Witchalls said some stranded passengers have looked for alternative routes home, including flying out to Fiji, to fly back into Australia with Fiji Airways.

She said there was anxiety among some stranded passengers waiting to hear when they could fly home.

"There's a lot of families here and a lot of people with differing levels of health and health needs as well," she said.

"It's left a lot of people agitated, concerned about when they're getting out and also looking for their needs going ahead for the next couple of days."

Air Vanuatu, which is owned by the Vanuatu government, has been grappling with issues affecting its services including flight delays and cancellations, and its Boeing 737 has been in maintenance for extended periods.

A spokesperson from Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade said they were "aware of reports that Air Vanuatu and its codeshare partners have cancelled or re-scheduled all flights over the coming days".

"Australians affected by the travel delays should contact their travel agent or travel insurance company," the spokesperson added.

  • X (formerly Twitter)

Related Stories

Australians stranded in vanuatu as national airline teeters on the brink of voluntary administration.

A white Air Vanuatu plane with green and blue design on a tarmac. 

After 101 treks across the Kokoda Track, one guide says it's too full of 'death traps' to go back

A group of people climb a small hill in a line, under banana trees.

Two Australian businessmen bought a casino in a tropical paradise — only to shut it down

A view of Jewel casino across Vila Bay at Iririki Resort, with hibiscus flowers in the foreground.

As tourism returns to the Pacific, some locals are resisting a return to mass tourism

Aerial image of a series of lush green islands in a blue ocean. Clouds meet the horizon.

These rusting shipwrecks are a big drawcard for divers. They're also ticking time bombs

A drone shot of a mostly sunken ship wreck near a beach.

  • Air Transport Industry
  • Foreign Affairs
  • Tourism and Leisure Industry
  • Travel and Tourism (Lifestyle and Leisure)


  1. Justice and Ethics in Tourism

    ethics in tourism industry

  2. 2-Ethics in Tourism and Hospitality Report

    ethics in tourism industry

  3. Background of the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism

    ethics in tourism industry

  4. Importance of Ethics in Hospitality and Tourism Industry

    ethics in tourism industry

  5. Ethics in the Hospitality and Tourism Industry with Answer Sheet (AHLEI

    ethics in tourism industry

  6. Tourism putting ethics into practice A report on the responsible

    ethics in tourism industry



  2. Consumer ethics to support Muslim Friendly Tourism

  3. Hotel ethics #bukhara #travel



  6. Minimizing conflicts between residents and local tourism stakeholders


  1. Global Code of Ethics for Tourism

    As a fundamental frame of reference for responsible and sustainable tourism, the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism (GCET) is a comprehensive set of principles designed to guide key-players in tourism development.Addressed to governments, the travel industry, communities and tourists alike, it aims to help maximise the sector's benefits while minimising its potentially negative impact on the ...

  2. Ethics in Tourism: Responsibility Toward Balancing Sustainability

    Ethics in tourism has emerged as a significant area of research, addressing the moral and responsible aspects of the tourism industry. This literature review aims to provide an overview of the key themes, research findings between 2000 and 2023 on ethics in tourism, highlighting the ethical issues, approaches, and frameworks identified by various authors.

  3. Background of the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism

    The Global Code of Ethics for Tourism (GCET) is a comprehensive set of principles whose purpose is to guide stakeholders in tourism development: central and local governments, local communities, the tourism industry and its professionals, as well as visitors, both international and domestic. With international tourism forecast to reach 1.6 ...

  4. Ethics in Tourism

    Abstract. This chapter argues that ethics provides an alternative way in which to better understand an act upon tourism industry dilemmas (as an alternative to the over-reliance on the impacts literature). There is a rich foundation of ethics knowledge emerging in the tourism literature, and this foundation continues to expand at a modest rate.

  5. Report of the World Committee on Tourism Ethics

    List of Issues > Volume 2021, Issue 1 > Report of the World Committee on Tourism Ethics - A/24/11

  6. What is the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism?

    1994. As a fundamental frame of reference for responsible and sustainable tourism, the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism (GCET) is a comprehensive set of principles designed to guide key-players in tourism development. Addressed to governments, the travel industry, communities and tourists alike, it aims to help maximize the sector's benefits ...

  7. What is ethical tourism and why is it important?

    Ethical tourism is a concept that has been developed in response to the critiques of mass tourism. Essentially, ethical tourism encourages tourists to move away from' the four Ss' (Sun, Sea, Sand and Sex), and exchange these for 'the three Ts' (Travelling, Trekking and Trucking). To put it simply, ethical tourism is a form of ...

  8. The Future of Ethics in Tourism

    The types of values that ought to frame our thinking and actions in tourism, as individuals, organisations, and communities, therefore, should be of a principled nature (Fennell and Malloy 2007).Malloy and Fennell argued that too often a market culture defines the essence of the tourism industry based on capitalism and free market metavalues, rather than a principled culture that underscores ...

  9. Framework Convention on Tourism Ethics

    Framework Convention on Tourism Ethics. Click here to get the Spanish version of this document. Click here to get the French version of this document. Click here to get the Russian version of this document. Click here to get the Arabic version of this document. Keywords: convention tourism ethics resolution A/RES/722 (XXIII) 23rd General Assembly.

  10. Ethical leadership in tourism and hospitality ...

    Though ethical leadership studies in the hospitality/tourism industry were based on data from both Western and non-Western nations (as shown in Table 2), countries from Europe, Africa, and Latin America are seldom considered for examining ethical leadership in this industry. Future research should test ethical leadership models based on ...

  11. A systematic review of ethical issues in hospitality and tourism

    Originality/value. This review updates earlier reviews of ethical issues in hospitality and tourism, whilst the link to innovation and the distinction of two categories, based on the causal direction between ethical considerations and innovation, identify an imbalance in the study of the topic.

  12. Global Codes of Ethics for Tourism

    [Article 1] Tourism's contribution to mutual understanding and respect between peoples and societies The understanding and promotion of the ethical values common to humanity, with an attitude of tolerance and respect for the diversity of religious, philosophical and moral beliefs, are both the foundation and the consequence of responsible tourism; stakeholders in tourism development and ...

  13. The Ethics of Tourism

    A critical role of the book is to highlight the ethical challenges in the tourism industry and to situate tourism ethics within wider contemporary discussions of ethics in general. Integrating theory and practice the book analyses a broad range of topical and relevant tourism ethical issues from the urgent 'big-picture' problems facing the ...

  14. PDF Responsible Travel and Ethical Tourism: Trends and Issues

    Goodwin Journal of Responsible Tourism Management, 3(1), 1-14 Published by Sarawak Research Society and 2 Faculty of Hospitality and Tourism Management, UCSI University Supported by Ministry of Tourism, Creative Industry and Performing Arts Sarawak addressing the theme "Stockholm+50: a healthy planet for the prosperity of all - our

  15. Integrating ethics into tourism: beyond codes of conduct

    Now, the UNWTO is holding the first International Congress on Ethics and Tourism (15-16 September 2011, Madrid), arguably the first opportunity to evaluate whether the industry has moved beyond ...

  16. PDF Settling disputes in the tourism industry: the global code of ethics

    "Settling Disputes in the Tourism Industry: The Global Code of Ethics for Tourism and the World Committee on Tourism Ethics." Santa Clara Journal of International Law, vol. 13, no. 2, 2015, p. 375-416. HeinOnline. OSCOLA 4th ed. Michael G Faure and I Made Budi Arsika, 'Settling Disputes in the Tourism Industry: ...

  17. Current Issues in Tourism

    Current Issues in Tourism encourages in-depth discussion and critique of key questions within the subject. It offers a readable format for normal and extended length peer-reviewed papers, commentaries, letters, and reviews, all designed to spark off further debate. It contains both applied and theoretical work that addresses tourism inquiry ...

  18. 29 Ways To Be An ETHICAL Tourist

    To put it simply, ethical tourism is a form of responsible tourism. ... Sex tourism is a big and ever-growing industry. That does not mean it is something to be engaged with - from Amsterdam to the Dominican Republic, it is a big issue for many. There is a lot of exploitation and law-breaking involved in sex tourism, and getting involved with ...

  19. Air Vanuatu enters voluntary liquidation, leaving passengers stranded

    Air Vanuatu, which is owned by the Vanuatu government, has been grappling with issues affecting its services including flight delays and cancellations, and its Boeing 737 has been in maintenance ...