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Question about 2009 Dodge Journey
How to add freon to a 2009 dodge journey
How do you add freon to the ac system if the compressor is not engaged?
Posted by Anonymous on Mar 24, 2013
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You need 22oz for a "front only" a/c system and 32oz of R-134a refrigerant for "front and rear" a/c system. The compressor is off likely due to insufficient refrigerant charge in the system. Once the minimum required charge has be provided, the compressor clutch should engage (check for blown fuse if it does not). Refrigerant is added only to the low or suction side of the compressor and only as a gas. Do not invert the refrigerant tank in an attempt to add refrigerant as a liquid! Placing the tank in warm water is a better way to fill the system (raises the pressure in the tank) without concern for slugging the compressor.
Posted on Jul 14, 2015
- Not Helpful
5 Related Answers
- 126 Answers
SOURCE: air conditioner inop
First suggestion is the clutch not engaging. Check voltage at clutch plug and confirm power source, if there is power there then clutch would work unless it has failed.
Posted on Apr 25, 2009
SOURCE: 2003 dodge grand caravan ac recharge
you should be adding the 134a to the system the low pressure switch is doing its job by not allowing the compressor to kick on, it wont kick on until there is enough 134a in the system to be above the preset pressure for the low pressure switch.
Posted on Jun 27, 2009
- 155 Answers
SOURCE: recharge ac run bypass
more like run a bypass on the low pressure switch
Posted on Mar 27, 2010
SOURCE: ac compressor wont kick in. Full of freon,new ac
Probably just the a/c resistor which is a big black block thing just under the passenger dash. You dont need to remove the dash just crane your head underneath and you will see it. Mine went and i got another off Amazon for about $30. Apparently they tend to go every so often. Good luck!
Posted on Jul 21, 2010
Ronny Bennett Sr.
- 6988 Answers
SOURCE: AC low pressure sensor 02 dodge stratus location
If the ac compressor is cycling,then the expansion valve would be the problem.
Posted on Jul 25, 2010
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Nearest A/C Repair for Your 2009 Dodge Journey
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Schedule A/C Service for Your Dodge Journey
Feeling the heat from your A/C? Our trained technicians can take a look at your 2009 Dodge Journey A/C system and recommend a repair plan. Schedule A/C service today and get ready to chill out.
Dodge Journey A/C Repair
Few things are worse than a broken car air conditioner on a hot summer day. Your steering wheel feels like it's burning your hands. Your skin sticks to the driver’s seat. “Who can fix my Dodge Journey A/C?” you wonder, as the sun beats through the windshield. Firestone Complete Auto Care can! We’ve got experience with Dodge vehicles, and our qualified technicians can diagnose and service the A/C system in your 2009 Dodge. Come to your local Firestone Complete Auto Care in your Dodge Journey
During an A/C performance check, we'll determine the condition of your 2009 Dodge Journey A/C system to determine whether repair work is needed. We’ll test overall system performance, check for any leaks, and measure the system pressure. If any signs point to a possible leak, we’ll send a special U/V dye through the system, or use something called a “sniffer.” What’s a “sniffer,” you ask? It’s a specially designed machine that’s used on parts of your Dodge Journey A/C system to detect any refrigerant fumes that might be leaking out from the system. If your system has a leak, we can get it fixed.
Recharge the A/C in Your Journey
When we perform an A/C repair on your 2009 Dodge Journey, we’ll also do an A/C evacuation and recharge. To start this process, a technician will flush out the old refrigerant from your vehicle’s A/C system. Next, they will evacuate the system according to Dodge's recommendations. The A/C system is recharged with new refrigerant and once we’ve done a final test on the system ourselves, you're ready to get back on the road. We want you to be comfortable in your car, so we train our technicians to perform 2009 Dodge Journey A/C recharges.
Common Dodge Journey A/C Problems
Warm air isn't the only Dodge Journey A/C problem you may encounter. Other common A/C problems include weak airflow, which could mean you have a compromised seal, mildew or mold buildup, a loose or damaged hose, or a ventilation fan that needs to be replaced. If your A/C system blows cold air first but then it turns warm, this may suggest a leak, a blown fuse, or a damaged compressor clutch. Are you breathing in some “interesting” new odors in your 2009 Dodge Journey? You could have a moldy evaporator case, or you may simply need a new cabin air filter installed. Our technicians will work to solve your A/C problems to the best of their ability. Don’t sweat it — we’re here to help you chill out again in your Journey.
Frequently Asked Questions for 2009 Dodge Journey A/C Systems
- Can I make my Journey air conditioner colder? For starters, use a sun-blocking shade in the windshield while you’re parked, or look for a shady parking spot. Closing all the passenger vents in your car can help redirect cold air toward you, cooling you off faster. Still need more chill? Head to Firestone Complete Auto Care for an A/C performance check and recharge.
- Why do I get hot air from my Journey A/C? Maybe your A/C starts cool but then gets warm. Or maybe it never gets cold in the first place. Either way, your A/C troubles could be traced back to a clogged expansion valve, faulty compressor clutch, blown fuse, or leak.
- How does my A/C system get a leak? Over the years, the rubber seals and gaskets in your Journey’s A/C system naturally degrade. Moisture can get into the system and cause a malfunction, or parts can simply wear out so that your system no longer seals properly.
- Does the A/C in my Journey use gas? While your vehicle’s A/C system doesn’t directly use fuel, it does draw power from the engine, which can impact the fuel consumption of your Journey.
- What can cause the A/C in my Journey to smell like vinegar? Moisture can accumulate on your vehicle’s A/C system components, creating the perfect breeding ground for bacteria. As this bacteria grows, it can cause the air conditioning system in your Journey to have a vinegar-like smell.
- What is causing my Journey’s A/C to only work when the car is in motion? Damaged or worn components in your Journey’s electrical or air conditioning system can cause the A/C to only work when the car is moving. You may be dealing with low coolant or a faulty cooling fan.
- Who repairs Journey A/C near me? Firestone Complete Auto Care is ready to inspect and repair your Journey’s air conditioning system. Make an appointment at one of our nearby A/C repair shops today.
- Dodge Refrigerant Capacity and Refrigerant Oil Type
Here a listing of Dodge refrigerant capacity and refrigerant oil types for Dodge vehicles up to the 2013 model year. Most R-134a systems use PAG 46. But some use other viscosity like PAG150. Make sure you use the correct oil!
AC R-134a refrigerant recharge kit, refill, PAG-46 oil and replacement caps
Dodge Avenger Refrigerant Capacity and Refrigerant Oil Type
2014-11 4 Cyl. 2.4 Eng. – 3.40 Oz. PAG-46; 16.00 Oz. R-134a 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 3.40 Oz. PAG-46; 16.00 Oz. R-134a
2010-09 4 Cyl. 2.4 Eng. – 3.40 Oz. PAG-46; 16.00 Oz. R-134a 6 Cyl. 2.7 Eng. – 3.40 Oz. PAG-46; 16.00 Oz. R-134a 6 Cyl. 3.5 Eng. – 3.40 Oz. PAG-46; 16.00 Oz. R-134a
2008 All Eng. – 3.40 Oz. PAG-46; 16.00 Oz. R-134a
2000 All Eng. – 26.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.00 Oz. PAG-100 .
1999-95 4 Cyl. – 26.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.00 Oz. PAG-46 . 6 Cyl. – 26.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.00 Oz. PAG-100 CALIBER
2012-11 4 Cyl. 2.0 Eng. – 3.40 Oz. PAG-46; 20.96 Oz. R-134a 4 Cyl. 2.4 Eng. – 3.40 Oz. PAG-46; 20.96 Oz. R-134a
2010 4 Cyl. 2.0 Eng. – 18.00 Oz. R-134a; 3.40 Oz. PAG-46 4 Cyl. 2.0 Eng. – 18.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.10 Oz. PAG-46 4 Cyl. 2.4 Eng. – 20.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.10 Oz. PAG-46 4 Cyl. 2.4 Eng. – 3.40 Oz. PAG-46; 20.00 Oz. R-134a
2009 4 Cyl. 1.8 Eng. – 18.00 Oz. R-134a; 3.40 Oz. PAG-46 4 Cyl. 1.8 Eng. – 18.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.10 Oz. PAG-46 4 Cyl. 2.0 Eng. – 18.00 Oz. R-134a; 3.40 Oz. PAG-46 4 Cyl. 2.0 Eng. – 18.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.10 Oz. PAG-46 4 Cyl. 2.4 Eng. – 20.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.10 Oz. PAG-46 4 Cyl. 2.4 Eng. – 3.40 Oz. PAG-46; 20.00 Oz. R-134a
2008-07 All Eng. – 18.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.10 Oz. PAG-46
Dodge CHALLENGER Refrigerant Capacity and Refrigerant Oil Type
2020 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal . 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; See Under Hood Decal PAG-46 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal . 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; See Under Hood Decal PAG-46 8 Cyl. 6.2 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; See Under Hood Decal PAG-46 8 Cyl. 6.2 Eng. – See Under Hood Decal . 8 Cyl. 6.4 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal .
2019 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal . 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; See Under Hood Decal PAG-46 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal . 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; See Under Hood Decal PAG-46 8 Cyl. 6.2 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; See Under Hood Decal PAG-46 8 Cyl. 6.2 Eng. – See Under Hood Decal . 8 Cyl. 6.4 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal . 8 Cyl. 6.4 Eng. – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; See Under Hood Decal PAG-46
2018 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal . 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; See Under Hood Decal PAG-46 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal . 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; See Under Hood Decal PAG-46 8 Cyl. 6.2 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; See Under Hood Decal PAG-46 8 Cyl. 6.2 Eng. – See Under Hood Decal . 8 Cyl. 6.4 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; See Under Hood Decal PAG-46 8 Cyl. 6.4 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal .
2017 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; See Under Hood Decal PAG-46 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal . 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; See Under Hood Decal PAG-46 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal . 8 Cyl. 6.2 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; See Under Hood Decal PAG-46 8 Cyl. 6.2 Eng. – See Under Hood Decal . 8 Cyl. 6.4 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal . 8 Cyl. 6.4 Eng. – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; See Under Hood Decal PAG-46
2016 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal . 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.10 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal . 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.10 Oz. PAG-46
2016 8 Cyl. 6.2 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.10 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 6.2 Eng. – See Under Hood Decal . 8 Cyl. 6.4 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal . 8 Cyl. 6.4 Eng. – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.10 Oz. PAG-46
2015 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.10 Oz. PAG-46 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal . 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.10 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal . 8 Cyl. 6.2 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.10 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 6.2 Eng. – See Under Hood Decal . 8 Cyl. 6.4 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.10 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 6.4 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal .
2014 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.10 Oz. PAG-46 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal . 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.10 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal . 8 Cyl. 6.4 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.10 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 6.4 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal .
2013 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.10 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.10 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 6.4 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.10 Oz. PAG-46
2012 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.10 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.10 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 6.4 Eng. – 23.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.10 Oz. PAG-46
2011 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 23.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.10 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 23.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.10 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 6.4 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.10 Oz. PAG-46
2010-09 6 Cyl. 3.5 Eng. – 26.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.10 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 26.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.10 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 6.1 Eng. – 26.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.10 Oz. PAG-46
2008 8 Cyl. 6.1 Eng. – 26.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.10 Oz. PAG-46
Dodge Charger Refrigerant Capacity and Refrigerant Oil Type
2020-18 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal . 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; See Under Hood Decal PAG-46 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal . 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; See Under Hood Decal PAG-46 8 Cyl. 6.2 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; See Under Hood Decal PAG-46 8 Cyl. 6.2 Eng. – See Under Hood Decal . 8 Cyl. 6.4 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal . 8 Cyl. 6.4 Eng. – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; See Under Hood Decal PAG-46
2017-16 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; See Under Hood Decal PAG-46 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal . 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; See Under Hood Decal PAG-46 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal . 8 Cyl. 6.2 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; See Under Hood Decal PAG-46 8 Cyl. 6.2 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal . 8 Cyl. 6.4 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; See Under Hood Decal PAG-46 8 Cyl. 6.4 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal .
2015 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.40 Oz. PAG-46 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal . 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; See Under Hood Decal PAG-46 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal . 8 Cyl. 6.2 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.40 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 6.2 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal . 8 Cyl. 6.4 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.40 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 6.4 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal .
2014 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.40 Oz. PAG-46 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal . 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.40 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal . 8 Cyl. 6.4 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.40 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 6.4 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-1234yf; See Under Hood Decal
2012 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-134a; 6.10 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-134a; 6.10 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 6.4 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-134a; 6.10 Oz. PAG-46
2011 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-134a; 6.10 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 24.96 Oz. R-134a; 6.10 Oz. PAG-46 2010-09 6 Cyl. 2.7 Eng. – 26.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.10 Oz. PAG-46 6 Cyl. 3.5 Eng. – 26.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.10 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 26.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.10 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 6.1 Eng. – 26.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.10 Oz. PAG-46
2008-07 All Eng. – 26.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.10 Oz. PAG-46
2006 All Eng. – 26.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.50 Oz. PAG-46 COLT
1994-93 4 Cyl. 1.5 Eng. – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.40 Oz. PAG-46 4 Cyl. 1.8 Eng. – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.40 Oz. PAG-46 DART
2016-15 4 Cyl. 1.4 Eng. – 19.04 Oz. R-1234yf; 6.00 Oz. PAG-46 4 Cyl. 1.4 Eng. – 20.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.00 Oz. PAG-46 4 Cyl. 2.0 Eng. – 19.04 Oz. R-1234yf; 6.00 Oz. PAG-46 4 Cyl. 2.0 Eng. – 20.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.00 Oz. PAG-46 4 Cyl. 2.4 Eng. – 19.04 Oz. R-1234yf; 6.00 Oz. PAG-46 4 Cyl. 2.4 Eng. – 20.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.00 Oz. PAG-46
2014 4 Cyl. 1.4 Eng. – 20.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.00 Oz. PAG-46 4 Cyl. 2.0 Eng. – 20.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.00 Oz. PAG-46 4 Cyl. 2.4 Eng. – 20.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.00 Oz. PAG-46
2013 4 Cyl. 1.4 Eng. – 20.00 Oz. R-134a; 5.90 Oz. PAG-46 4 Cyl. 2.0 Eng. – 20.00 Oz. R-134a; 5.90 Oz. PAG-46 4 Cyl. 2.4 Eng. – 20.00 Oz. R-134a; 5.90 Oz. PAG-46
Dodge Intrepid Refrigerant Capacity and Refrigerant Oil Type
2004-99 All Eng. – 5.00 Oz. PAG-46; 25.00 Oz. R-134a 1998-96 All Eng. – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; 5.00 Oz. PAG-46 1995-94 All Eng. – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.75 Oz. PAG-46 1993 All Eng. – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.75 Oz. PAG-46
Dodge Magnum Refrigerant Capacity and Refrigerant Oil Type
2008-06 All Eng. – 26.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.50 Oz. PAG-46
2005 6 Cyl. 2.7 Eng. – 26.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.10 Oz. PAG-46 6 Cyl. 3.5 Eng. – 26.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.10 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 26.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.10 Oz. PAG-46 NEON 2005-02 All Eng. – 30.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.00 Oz. PAG-46 2001-00 All Eng. – 27.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.00 Oz. PAG-46 1999 All Eng. – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.75 Oz. PAG-46 1998-97 All Eng. – 6.75 Oz. PAG-46; 25.00 Oz. R-134a 1996-95 All Eng. – 29.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.75 Oz. PAG-46
Dodge Shadow Refrigerant Capacity and Refrigerant Oil Type
1994 All Eng. – 26.00 Oz. R-134a; 7.25 Oz. PAG-46
Dodge Spirit Refrigerant Capacity and Refrigerant Oil Type
1995 All Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; 7.25 Oz. PAG-46 1994 All Eng. – 26.00 Oz. R-134a; 7.25 Oz. PAG-46
Dodge Stealth Refrigerant Capacity and Refrigerant Oil Type
1996 All Eng. – 30.00 Oz. R-134a; 5.50 Oz. PAG-46 1995-94 All Eng. – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; 5.50 Oz. PAG-46
Dodge Stratus Refrigerant Capacity and Refrigerant Oil Type
2006-05 All Eng. – See Under Hood Decal; 5.00 Oz. PAG-46 . 2004-02 All Eng. – 4.00 Oz. PAG-46; 15.00 Oz. R-134a 2001-99 All Eng. – 20.00 Oz. R-134a; 5.00 Oz. PAG-46 1998 All Eng. – 26.00 Oz. R-134a; 5.00 Oz. PAG-46 1997-95 All Eng. – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; 5.00 Oz. PAG-46
Dodge Viper Refrigerant Capacity and Refrigerant Oil Type
2017-14 10 Cyl. 8.4 Eng. – 17.60 Oz. R-134a; 6.00 Oz. PAG-46 2010-09 10 Cyl. 8.4 Eng. – 16.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.10 Oz. PAG-46 2008-03 All Eng. – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46; 16.00 Oz. R-134a 2002-94 All Eng. – 30.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.75 Oz. PAG-46
Dodge CARAVAN / GRAND CARAVAN Refrigerant Capacity and Refrigerant Oil Type
2018-14 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 28.96 Oz. R-134a; 4.00 Oz. PAG-46; w/ Front AC 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 40.48 Oz. R-134a; 5.00 Oz. PAG-46; w/ Front & Rear AC
2013 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 29.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.00 Oz. PAG-46 . 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 40.48 Oz. R-134a; 5.07 Oz. PAG-46
2012 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 29.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.00 Oz. PAG-46 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 40.48 Oz. R-134a; 5.07 Oz. PAG-46
2011 All Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 29.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.00 Oz. PAG-46 All Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 5.00 Oz. PAG-46; 40.50 Oz. R-134a
2010-08 All Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 39.00 Oz. R-134a; 5.00 Oz. PAG-46 All Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 4.00 Oz. PAG-46; 27.80 Oz. R-134a
2007-06 All Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.10 Oz. PAG-46 All Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 38.00 Oz. R-134a; 7.40 Oz. PAG-46
2005 All Eng.; w/o Rear AC – See Under Hood Decal R-134a; 6.10 Oz. PAG-46 All Eng.; w/ Rear AC – See Under Hood Decal R-134a; 7.80 Oz. PAG-46
2004 All Eng.; w/ Rear AC – See Under Hood Decal R-134a; 10.10 Oz. PAG-46 All Eng.; w/o Rear AC – See Under Hood Decal R-134a; 6.10 Oz. PAG-46
2003 All Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 31.00 Oz. R-134a; 5.00 Oz. PAG-46; w/ Single or Dual Zone All Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 31.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.40 Oz. PAG-46; w/ Single or Dual Zone All Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 43.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.40 Oz. PAG-46; w/ 3 Zone
2002 All Eng.; w/o Rear AC – See Under Hood Decal R-134a; 5.00 Oz. PAG-46 All Eng.; w/ Rear AC – See Under Hood Decal R-134a; 7.40 Oz. PAG-46
2001-00 All Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 46.00 Oz. R-134a; 7.40 Oz. PAG-46 All Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 5.00 Oz. PAG-46; 34.00 Oz. R-134a
1999-96 All Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 48.00 Oz. R-134a; 7.50 Oz. PAG-46 All Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 5.00 Oz. PAG-46; 34.00 Oz. R-134a
1995-94 All Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 36.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.73 Oz. PAG-46 All Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 50.00 Oz. R-134a; 7.40 Oz. PAG-46
1993 All Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 13.00 Oz. PAG-46; 50.00 Oz. R-134a All Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 36.00 Oz. R-134a; 7.00 Oz. PAG-46
Dodge Dakota Refrigerant Capacity and Refrigerant Oil Type
2011 6 Cyl. 3.7 Eng. – 20.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.06 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 4.7 Eng. – 20.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.06 Oz. PAG-46 2010-09 All Eng. – 20.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.06 Oz. PAG-46 2008 All Eng. – 20.00 Oz. R-134a; 5.00 Oz. PAG-46 2007-01 All Eng. – 32.00 Oz. R-134a; 7.00 Oz. PAG-100 . 2000 All Eng. – 32.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.00 Oz. PAG-100 . 1999-98 All Eng. – 32.00 Oz. R-134a; 8.00 Oz. PAG-100 . 1997-94 All Eng. – 32.00 Oz. R-134a; 7.75 Oz. PAG-100
Dodge Durango Refrigerant Capacity and Refrigerant Oil Type
2014 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 22.08 Oz. R-134a; 4.00 Oz. PAG-46; w/ Front AC 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 32.48 Oz. R-134a; 5.00 Oz. PAG-46; w/ Front & Rear AC 6 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 32.48 Oz. R-134a; 5.00 Oz. PAG-46; w/ Front & Rear AC 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 22.08 Oz. R-134a; 4.00 Oz. PAG-46; w/ Front AC
2013 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 4.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.08 Oz. R-134a 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 4.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.08 Oz. R-134a
2012 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 4.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.08 Oz. R-134a . 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 5.00 Oz. PAG-46; 32.48 Oz. R-134a 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 4.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.08 Oz. R-134a . 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 5.00 Oz. PAG-46; 32.48 Oz. R-134a
2011 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 4.00 Oz. PAG-46; 31.68 Oz. R-134a . 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 5.00 Oz. PAG-46; 32.48 Oz. R-134a 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 4.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.08 Oz. R-134a . 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 5.00 Oz. PAG-46; 32.48 Oz. R-134a
2009 6 Cyl. 3.7 Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 30.00 Oz. R-134a; 5.41 Oz. PAG-46 . 6 Cyl. 3.7 Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 41.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.90 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 4.7 Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 30.00 Oz. R-134a; 5.41 Oz. PAG-46 . 8 Cyl. 4.7 Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 41.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.09 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 30.00 Oz. R-134a; 5.41 Oz. PAG-46 . 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 40.00 Oz. R-134a; 7.40 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 45.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.25 Oz. PAG-46
2008 6 Cyl. 3.7 Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 30.00 Oz. R-134a; 5.41 Oz. PAG-46 . 6 Cyl. 3.7 Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 41.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.09 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 4.7 Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 30.00 Oz. R-134a; 5.41 Oz. PAG-46 . 8 Cyl. 4.7 Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 41.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.09 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 30.00 Oz. R-134a; 5.41 Oz. PAG-46 . 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 40.00 Oz. R-134a; 7.40 Oz. PAG-46
2007 All Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 30.00 Oz. R-134a; 5.07 Oz. PAG-46 All Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 40.00 Oz. R-134a; 7.40 Oz. PAG-46
06-05 All Eng.; w/o Rear AC – w/ R-134a; 5.00 Oz. PAG-46 . All Eng.; w/ Rear AC – w/ R-134a; 7.50 Oz. PAG-46 .
2004 All Eng.; w/ Rear AC – w/ R-134a; 10.00 Oz. PAG-46 . All Eng.; w/o Rear AC – w/ R-134a; 7.00 Oz. PAG-46 .
2003-01 All Eng.; w/ Rear AC – w/ R-134a; 10.00 Oz. PAG-100 All Eng.; w/o Rear AC – w/ R-134a; 7.00 Oz. PAG-100
2000 All Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; 5.50 Oz. PAG-100 All Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 32.00 Oz. R-134a; 8.00 Oz. PAG-100
2099-98 All Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; 5.50 Oz. PAG-100 All Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 30.00 Oz. R-134a; 8.00 Oz. PAG-100
Dodge Journey Refrigerant Capacity and Refrigerant Oil Type
2018-16 4 Cyl. 2.4 Eng. – 20.00 Oz. R-1234yf; 3.40 Oz. PAG; Single Zone Climate Control System 4 Cyl. 2.4 Eng. – 31.20 Oz. R-1234yf; 3.40 Oz. PAG; Dual Zone Climate Control System . 4 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 20.00 Oz. R-1234yf; 3.40 Oz. PAG; Single Zone Climate Control System 4 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 31.20 Oz. R-1234yf; 3.40 Oz. PAG; Dual Zone Climate Control System .
2015 4 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 22.08 Oz. R-134a; 3.40 Oz. PAG-100; Single Zone Climate Control System 4 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 32.00 Oz. R-134a; 3.40 Oz. PAG-100; Dual Zone Climate Control System
2014 4 Cyl. 2.4 Eng. – 32.00 Oz. R-134a; 3.40 Oz. PAG-100; Dual Zone Climate Control System 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 22.08 Oz. R-134a; 3.40 Oz. PAG-100; Single Zone Climate Control System
2013-11 4 Cyl. 2.4 Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 22.00 Oz. R-134a; 3.40 Oz. PAG-100 . 4 Cyl. 2.4 Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 32.00 Oz. R-134a; 3.40 Oz. PAG-100 . 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 22.00 Oz. R-134a; 3.40 Oz. PAG-100 . 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 32.00 Oz. R-134a; 3.40 Oz. PAG-100
2010-09 4 Cyl. 2.4 Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 22.00 Oz. R-134a; 3.40 Oz. PAG-100 . 4 Cyl. 2.4 Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 32.00 Oz. R-134a; 3.40 Oz. PAG-100 . 6 Cyl. 3.5 Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 22.00 Oz. R-134a; 3.40 Oz. PAG-100 . 6 Cyl. 3.5 Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 32.00 Oz. R-134a; 3.40 Oz. PAG-100
Dodge Nitro Refrigerant Capacity and Refrigerant Oil Type
2011 6 Cyl. 3.7 Eng. – 19.00 Oz. R-134a; 5.00 Oz. PAG-46 6 Cyl. 4.0 Eng. – 19.00 Oz. R-134a; 5.00 Oz. PAG-46
2010-07 All Eng. – 19.00 Oz. R-134a; 5.00 Oz. PAG-46
Dodge PICKUP – FULLSIZE / RAMCHARGER Refrigerant Capacity and Refrigerant Oil Type
2017-15 6 Cyl. 3.0 Eng. Ram Pickup; Diesel – 18.08 Oz. R-1234yf; 6.00 Oz. PAG Oil 6 Cyl. 3.0 Eng. Ram Pickup; Diesel – 19.04 Oz. R-134a; 6.00 Oz. PAG Oil 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. Ram Pickup – 18.08 Oz. R-1234yf; 6.00 Oz. PAG Oil 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. Ram Pickup – 20.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.00 Oz. PAG Oil 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. Ram Pickup – 18.08 Oz. R-1234yf; 6.00 Oz. PAG Oil 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. Ram Pickup – 19.04 Oz. R-134a; 6.00 Oz. PAG Oil 8 Cyl. 6.4 Eng. Ram Pickup – 18.08 Oz. R-1234yf; 6.00 Oz. PAG Oil 8 Cyl. 6.4 Eng. Ram Pickup – 19.04 Oz. R-134a; 6.00 Oz. PAG Oil 8 Cyl. 6.7 Eng. Ram Pickup; Diesel – 22.08 Oz. R-134a; 6.00 Oz. PAG Oil
2014 6 Cyl. 3.0 Eng. Ram Pickup; Diesel – 18.08 Oz. R-1234yf; 6.00 Oz. PAG Oil 6 Cyl. 3.0 Eng. Ram Pickup; Diesel – 19.04 Oz. R-134a; 6.00 Oz. PAG Oil 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. Ram Pickup – 18.08 Oz. R-1234yf; 6.00 Oz. PAG Oil 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. Ram Pickup – 20.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.00 Oz. PAG Oil 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. Ram Pickup – 18.08 Oz. R-1234yf; 6.00 Oz. PAG Oil 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. Ram Pickup – 19.04 Oz. R-134a; 6.00 Oz. PAG Oil 8 Cyl. 6.4 Eng. Ram Pickup – 18.08 Oz. R-1234yf; 6.00 Oz. PAG Oil 8 Cyl. 6.4 Eng. Ram Pickup – 19.04 Oz. R-134a; 6.00 Oz. PAG Oil 8 Cyl. 6.7 Eng. Ram Pickup – 22.08 Oz. R-134a; 6.00 Oz. PAG Oil
2013 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.00 Oz. R-134a 6 Cyl. 3.7 Eng. – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.00 Oz. R-134a 8 Cyl. 4.7 Eng. – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.00 Oz. R-134a 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.00 Oz. R-134a
2012 6 Cyl. 3.7 Eng. – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.00 Oz. R-134a 6 Cyl. 3.7 Eng. – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.00 Oz. R-134a 8 Cyl. 4.7 Eng. – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.00 Oz. R-134a 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.00 Oz. R-134a
2011 6 Cyl. 3.7 Eng. – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46: 25.9 Oz. R-134a 6 Cyl. 3.7 Eng. – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46: 25.9 Oz. R-134a; 8 Cyl. 4.7 Eng. – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.00 Oz. R-134a 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.00 Oz. R-134a 2010-09 6 Cyl. 3.7 Eng. – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.00 Oz. R-134a 6 Cyl. 5.9 Eng. – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.00 Oz. R-134a 6 Cyl. 6.7 Eng. – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.00 Oz. R-134a 8 Cyl. 4.7 Eng. – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.00 Oz. R-134a 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.00 Oz. R-134a
2008-07 6 Cyl. 3.7 Eng. – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.00 Oz. R-134a 6 Cyl. 5.9 Eng. – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.00 Oz. R-134a 6 Cyl. 6.7 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; 7.00 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 4.7 Eng. – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.00 Oz. R-134a 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.00 Oz. R-134a
2006 10 Cyl. 8.3 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; 7.00 Oz. PAG-46 6 Cyl. 3.7 Eng. – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.00 Oz. R-134a 6 Cyl. 5.9 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; 7.00 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 4.7 Eng. – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.00 Oz. R-134a 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.00 Oz. R-134a
2005-04 10 Cyl. 8.3 Eng. – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.00 Oz. R-134a 6 Cyl. 3.7 Eng. – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.00 Oz. R-134a 6 Cyl. 5.9 Eng. – 24.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.00 Oz. PAG-100 . 8 Cyl. 4.7 Eng. – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.00 Oz. R-134a 8 Cyl. 5.7 Eng. – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46; 22.00 Oz. R-134a
2003 All Eng. – 32.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.25 Oz. PAG-100 2002-00 All Eng. – 32.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.25 Oz. PAG-100 . 1999-98 All Eng. – 32.00 Oz. R-134a; 8.00 Oz. PAG-100 . 1997-94 All Eng. – 32.00 Oz. R-134a; 7.75 Oz. PAG-100
Dodge PROMASTER SERIES Refrigerant Capacity and Refrigerant Oil Type
2017-15 4 Cyl. 2.4 Eng. ProMaster City – 14.40 Oz. R-134a; See Under Hood Decal PAG-46 . 6 Cyl. 3.0 Eng. ProMaster; Diesel – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46; 23.04 Oz. R-134a . 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. ProMaster – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46; 23.04 Oz. R-134a . 2014 6 Cyl. 3.6 Eng. ProMaster – 6.00 Oz. PAG-46; 23.04 Oz. R-134a
Dodge Sprinter Refrigerant Capacity and Refrigerant Oil Type
2009 6 Cyl. 3.0 Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 28.16 Oz. R-134a; 6.40 Oz. PAG-46 . 6 Cyl. 3.0 Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 5.00 Oz. PAG-46; 32.48 Oz. R-134a 08 6 Cyl. 3.0 Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 28.16 Oz. R-134a; 6.40 Oz. PAG-46 . 6 Cyl. 3.0 Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 5.00 Oz. PAG-46; 32.48 Oz. R-134a 6 Cyl. 3.5 Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 28.16 Oz. R-134a; 6.40 Oz. PAG-46 . 6 Cyl. 3.5 Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 5.00 Oz. PAG-46; 32.48 Oz. R-134a 2007 All Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 28.16 Oz. R-134a; 6.40 Oz. PAG-46 All Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 40.00 Oz. R-134a; 7.00 Oz. PAG-46 2006-03 5 Cyl. 2.7 Eng. – See Under Hood Decal R-134a; 13.90 Oz. PAG-46
Dodge VAN – FULLSIZE Refrigerant Capacity and Refrigerant Oil Type
2003-98 All Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 10.00 Oz. PAG-46; 46.00 Oz. R-134a All Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 8.00 Oz. PAG-46; 34.00 Oz. R-134a 1997-94 All Eng.; w/o Rear AC – 40.00 Oz. R-134a; 7.25 Oz. PAG-46 All Eng.; w/ Rear AC – 9.00 Oz. PAG-46; 60.00 Oz. R-134a
DODGE MEDIUM DUTY TRUCK Refrigerant Capacity and Refrigerant Oil Type
2014 8 Cyl. 6.4 Eng. – 26.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.00 Oz. PAG-46 8 Cyl. 6.7 Eng. – 26.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.00 Oz. PAG-46 2013-10 6 Cyl. 6.7 Eng. – 26.00 Oz. R-134a; 6.00 Oz. PAG-46
EAGLE SUMMIT Refrigerant Capacity and Refrigerant Oil Type
1996-95 4 Cyl. 1.5 Eng. Coupe – 27.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.40 Oz. PAG-46 4 Cyl. 1.5 Eng. Sedan – 27.00 Oz. R-134a; 5.10 Oz. PAG-46 4 Cyl. 1.8 Eng. – 27.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.10 Oz. PAG-46 4 Cyl. 2.4 Eng. – 27.00 Oz. R-134a; 2.70 Oz. PAG-46 1994 4 Cyl. 1.5 Eng. – 27.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.40 Oz. PAG-46 4 Cyl. 1.8 Eng. – 27.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.10 Oz. PAG-46 4 Cyl. 2.4 Eng. – 27.00 Oz. R-134a; 2.70 Oz. PAG-46
EAGLE TALON Refrigerant Capacity and Refrigerant Oil Type
1998-95 All Eng. – 25.50 Oz. R-134a; 6.50 Oz. PAG-100
EAGLE VISION Refrigerant Capacity and Refrigerant Oil Type
1997-96 All Eng. – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; 7.00 Oz. PAG-46 1995 All Eng. – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; 5.00 Oz. PAG-46 1994 All Eng. – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; 5.00 Oz. PAG-46 6 Cyl. 3.3 Eng. – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.80 Oz. PAG-46 6 Cyl. 3.5 Eng. – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.80 Oz. PAG-46 1993 All Eng. – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; 5.00 Oz. PAG-46 6 Cyl. 3.3 Eng. – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.75 Oz. PAG-46 6 Cyl. 3.5 Eng. – 28.00 Oz. R-134a; 4.75 Oz. PAG-46
©, 2020 Rick Muscoplat
- Air Conditioning Refrigerant Capacity and Oil Type
Dodge Journey AC Recharge Costs
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When do you need an A/C Recharge?
Poor a/c performance.
You ready for some complex, graduate-level math? When your A/C refrigerant, which lowers the temperature of the air for your A/C unit, isn’t working, your A/C might not be as cold. Whew! Able to keep up?
Let me guess: you don’t really pay attention to warning lights. I nailed it, right? Well, you should stop that habit, because they’re always telling you something important. For example, if the A/C system has a low refrigerant charge, your car may flash the AC button or some other type of warning.
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Home » Troubleshooting » Dodge Journey AC not cooling – causes and diagnosis
Dodge Journey AC not cooling – causes and diagnosis
Driving your Dodge Journey in warmer temperatures with a malfunctioning air conditioning system can quickly become a nuisance when sweltering heat builds up in the cabin. There are several causes for AC not blowing cold air in Journey, which we will go through in this article.
The most common causes for AC not cooling properly in Dodge Journey are low or overcharged refrigerant, compressor malfunction, clogged cabin air filter, dirty condenser or evaporator coils, dirty or sluggish blower motor, and bad fuse or relay. Less common causes are clogged expansion valve or orifice tube, overcharged oil, faulty blend door actuator, or a defect in the climate control unit.
1. Low refrigerant
Insufficient amount of refrigerant in the AC system is one of the leading causes of AC not blowing cold air in Journey. This can happen due to a leak or if the AC has not been recharged for a long time.
A low refrigerant level in your Journey does not necessarily mean there is a leak. Ideally, the refrigerant should never leak in a properly sealed AC system, but most car AC systems do leak small amount of refrigerant over time due to minor imperfections and will need recharging after every few years.
If you don’t service the AC system in your Journey for a long time, the refrigerant level will eventually get so low that the system loses its cooling capacity. Just have it refilled and you can drive with pleasant temperatures again. If the refrigerant level goes down again quickly, it means there is probably a leak.
Refrigerant leak causes
Refrigerant leak in Journey can be caused by leaking O-ring seals, leaking condenser or evaporator core, or a cracked hose. The leak can be diagnosed by injecting small amount of fluorescent dye into the AC system. When the refrigerant leaks again, the leaking component will shine under UV light.
How to recharge AC refrigerant in Dodge Journey
There are two ports in the air conditioning system of Journey. One is labelled H for high-pressure and the other one is labelled L for low-pressure. You can recharge your AC through the low-pressure port with a do it yourself AC recharge kit.
- Open the hood of your Journey.
- Check which type of refrigerant your vehicle uses. This information is typically located under the hood and/or in the owners manual.
- Start the engine.
- Turn on the AC and set it to the coldest setting, and the fan speed to maximum.
- Shake the canister briefly and release the refrigerant into the system until the recommended pressure has been achieved. Note: See next section for recommended pressure values.
Warning: Wear gloves and safety glasses before recharging the AC to avoid accidental exposure to harmful chemicals in the refrigerant. It is also cryogenic and can cause severe frostbite when it comes in contact with the skin.
2. Overcharged refrigerant
Just like with low refrigerant, the AC in Journey will blow warm air only if the AC system is overcharged with refrigerant. An overcharged system not only affects cooling performance but can also damage the compressor and sometimes can cause a major leak.
Ambient temperature affect on refrigerant pressure
The refrigerant pressure is affected by the outside atmospheric temperature. So, even if you recharged your Journey AC at the recommended pressure, the system could still over pressurize when the ambient temperatures get warmer.
Most modern vehicles use R-134a refrigerant, but newer vehicles are increasingly using R-1234yf as a more environmentally friendly replacement. The pressure values based on ambient temperatures differ depending on the type of the refrigerant. Check your vehicle’s owners manual or look under the hood to find the type of the refrigerant your vehicle uses.
Low side pressure values R134a vs R1234yf
Check refrigerant pressure.
Connect the pressure gauge to the low pressure (L) port in Journey. If the pressure is higher than the recommended pressure, let some refrigerant out preferably into a rag to avoid exposure.
3. Clogged cabin air filter
The pollen filter, also known as the cabin air filter or microfilter, is responsible for filtering the air that the passengers breathe in Dodge Journey. A dirty filter causes the overall ventilation of the interior to deteriorate resulting in reduced cooling and air flow. It also puts unnecessary strain on the entire AC system which negatively impacts the fuel consumption.
There is no prescribed time for changing cabin air filter, but most manufacturers recommend a change after 10,000-20,000 miles. If you drive your vehicle in dusty or polluted environment, the filter can get dirty much sooner than manufacturer’s recommendation.
Can you clean a dirty cabin air filter?
Instead of changing the cabin air filter in Journey, it is often recommended to first clean the filter. This can be done, for example, with a vacuum cleaner or a compressed air system, removing at least a large part of the visible dirt particles. Unfortunately, this procedure does not allow you to get into the deeper layers of the filter. Therefore, the filter performance will not increase significantly even after cleaning. As a rule, there is no avoiding a change if the filter is dirty.
Note: Dirty cabin air filter mostly only leads to reduced cooling. If only hot air comes out of the air vents in your Journey, then the problem probably lies somewhere else.
4. Dirty condenser
The air conditioning system in Dodge Journey has a condenser coil that sits at the front of the vehicle, and is responsible for releasing the heat from the refrigerant into the ambient air. Over time, grime, bugs and other small particles can build up on its surface and in the gaps of its mesh. This hinders the condenser’s ability to release heat as less air passes through the mesh, which results in poor cooling in the cabin.
Clean the condenser
If the condenser is dirty on your Journey, the simplest solution is to clean it. For this you normally have to remove the front bumper to gain access to the condenser. You can use pressure washer for cleaning, but make sure its at low pressure setting, as high pressure can damage the delicate fins on the condenser.
5. Dirty evaporator
Dirty evaporator can also significantly reduce AC cooling performance in Journey. The cabin air filter captures most of the dirt or other airborne particles, but some particles escape and can get lodged on to the evaporator. Over time, these particles build up on the fins and block the air flow through the evaporator, causing reduced air flow in the cabin and poor cooling.
Symptoms of a dirty evaporator
The two most prominent symptoms of a clogged up evaporator in Journey are: the air flow from the AC vents is choppy and not smooth, and the inside of the vehicle is developing a bad moldy smell.
Clean the evaporator
Cleaning the evaporator in Journey is not a simple task. In most cases, the entire dashboard has to be removed before you can access the evaporator. Therefore, it is recommended to do this in a workshop.
6. Faulty compressor
The compressor is the heart of the air conditioning system in Dodge Journey. It is not only responsible for pumping the refrigerant throughout the AC system but also converting the refrigerant from gaseous state to liquid state as it passes through the condenser. If the compressor fails, the AC will only blow warm air.
Causes of compressor failure
Insufficient lubricant: The compressor in Journey needs lubrication to function properly and minimize mechanical wear by reducing friction. If there isn’t enough oil added with the refrigerant or to the compressor itself if it was replaced, the internal components of the compressor will wear out and cease to function.
Too much oil: If there is excessive amount of oil added with the refrigerant, it can cause compressor performance issues which reduces cooling efficiency, and can also cause premature compressor failure.
Keep in mind, an AC compressor can fail without any apparent cause, especially in older vehicles or in vehicles that have racked up too many miles. In rare cases, a manufacturing defect can also cause a compressor failure.
7. Overcharged oil
If you are only topping off the refrigerant in your Dodge Journey with off-the-shelf refrigerant recharge cans and not repairing the leak, you may have flooded with AC system with oil since these cans often contains added oil.
The excess oil may pool in various places of the AC system and can coat the inner walls of the evaporator and condenser, diminishing their ability to absorb or dissipate heat, consequently reducing the overall cooling performance. Excessive oil can also reduce the performance of the compressor and can cause it to fail prematurely.
8. Clogged expansion valve or orifice tube
Your vehicle’s air conditioning system has an expansion vale or an orifice tube, depending on the model. The function of both expansion valve and orifice tube is the same, to restrict the flow and reduce pressure of the refrigerant before it enters the evaporator coil. Both of these are at risk of clogging due to contamination, for example due to metal shavings from a failing compressor.
In case of contamination, you may have to flush out the contaminants from the AC system of your Journey, including the condenser and the evaporator, before putting in the new part. In case of severe contamination, multiple components may have to be replaced, including the condenser, the evaporator and the compressor.
9. Dirty blower motor
The blower motor is the central component of the air conditioning system in Journey, responsible for blowing cold air through the AC vents. Although most of the dirt and other particles in the air are filtered by the cabin air filter, but some particles do escape and can cling to the fins of the blower cage. Over time dust can accumulate on the fins and reduce the air flow, which reduces cooling performance.
If too much dirt is caked in the blower fins, it can throw off the balance of the spinning cage and cause it to wobble. This puts strain on the motor and further reduces the air flow and cooling performance, and may also cause unusual noises from behind the dashboard.
Clean the blower motor
Remove the blower motor, typically located under the passenger side dashboard, and inspect the condition of the cage. If found dirty, clean it using a brush.
10. Sluggish blower motor
If the blower motor in your Journey is not spinning fast enough either due to an internal defect or due to a fault in the resistor/control module, the AC cooling performance will be degraded due to reduced air flow.
When a blower motor goes bad, it usually makes unusual noises when in operation, and the passengers may feel reduced air flow from the AC vents. Keep in mind that reduced air flow doesn’t always indicate a problem with the blower motor, as it can also happen due to a clogged cabin air filter, dirty evaporator, or a bad mode door actuator. So, all of them must be inspected when diagnosing poor air flow.
11. Faulty blend door actuator
Blend door actuator plays a role in controlling the temperature inside your Journey. If there is a problem with the temperature of the air conditioning system, it could be due to a bad blend door actuator.
The most common symptom of a faulty blend door actuator in Dodge Journey is a slight clicking sound (or other unusual noise) repeatedly coming from under the dashboard. The sound will be most prominent for a few seconds when you turn on the air conditioning or adjust the temperature.
Symptom: knocking sound
A knocking noise from behind the dashboard could be an indicator of a bad blend door actuator in your Journey. The sound is something like a light tapping on the door and it typically happens when you turn on/off the air conditioning system or start the engine.
Symptom: creaking sound
One side hot, other side cold.
A common symptom of a faulty blend door actuator in vehicles with dual zone climate control system is one side blowing hot air while the other side is blowing cold air.
Replace the faulty part
A bad blend door actuator cannot be repaired and must be replaced with a new one. Due to the complexity of the replacement job, it is not recommended as a DIY project. The blend door actuator may require recalibration after replacement.
12. Blown fuse or bad relay
Check all the relevant fuses and relays related to the air-conditioning system in your Journey. Check the owners manual of your vehicle or the fuse box cover to find the exact location of the AC fuses. If the fuse is blown, replace it with a new one with the specified amp rating.
13. Bad climate control unit
Climate control module is the brain of the air-conditioning system in your Dodge Journey, responsible for controlling all the components in the system. In rare cases, a fault in the climate control unit can cause the AC to stop cooling.
Use OBD2 scanner for diagnosis
Since Dodge Journey is equipped with on-board diagnostics (OBD), a fault diagnosis can provide initial indications of where the malfunction is located in the air conditioning system.
To begin troubleshooting, you must first connect the diagnostic tool to your Journey. The OBDII connector is usually located under the dashboard. With the tool connected, turn on the ignition. Most diagnostic devices then ask for some information about the vehicle. It is important that you enter this 100% correctly, otherwise the result of the search may be inaccurate. In addition to the vehicle make, model, and engine type, you usually also have to type in the Vehicle Identification Number (VIN). Since some OBD codes are manufacturer-specific, the scanner will be able to give you more accurate information if you enter more details about your Journey.
There are many reasons why your Dodge Journey AC is not cooling properly. When looking for the reason, you should always start with the most obvious cause, insufficient amount of refrigerant.
In any case, it is advisable for laypersons to visit a workshop. A professional mechanic can swiftly diagnose the poor AC cooling issue for you.
Good job. You really combined a lot of helpful elements onto a single page. Especially like the blend door audio clips, and the cabin air filter video. Thank you.
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Recharge up to 200 miles
Recharge up to 200 Miles
Less than gasoline
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With 50,000+ Superchargers, Tesla owns and operates the largest global, fast charging network in the world. Located on major routes near convenient amenities, Superchargers keep you charged when you're away from home. Simply plug in, charge and go.
To use a Supercharger, simply plug in and charge automatically. With the Tesla app, you can view Supercharger stall availability, monitor your charge status or get notified when you’re ready to go.
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Superchargers can add up to 200 miles of range in just 15 minutes. Since charging above 80 percent is rarely necessary, stops are typically short and convenient. With a broad network of fast charging, automatic battery preconditioning and the exceptional range of every Tesla car, you’ll spend even more time on the road.
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Enter a destination on your touchscreen and Trip Planner will automatically calculate your route with Superchargers along the way. Trip Planner considers driving style, elevation, outside temperature, traffic, stall availability and more, offering a convenient door-to-door experience.
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Review: Urban groundwater issues and resource management, and their roles in the resilience of cities
Revue : Problèmes et gestion des ressources en eaux souterraines urbaines, et leur rôle dans la résilience des villes
Revisión: Los problemas de las aguas subterráneas urbanas y la gestión de los recursos y su papel en la resiliencia de las ciudades
Revisione: Gestione delle acque sotterranee in ambito urbano e delle relative problematiche, e loro ruolo nella resilienza delle città
Revisão: Problemas de águas subterrâneas urbanas e gestão de recursos, e seus papéis na resiliência das cidades
- Open access
- Published: 05 August 2022
- volume 30 , pages 1657–1683 ( 2022 )
You have full access to this open access article
- Francesco La Vigna ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0003-2727-2017 1
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Cite this article
The relationships between cities and underlying groundwater are reviewed, with the aim to highlight the importance of urban groundwater resources in terms of city resilience value. Examples of more than 70 cities worldwide are cited along with details of their groundwater-related issues, specific experiences, and settings. The groundwater-related issues are summarized, and a first groundwater-city classification is proposed in order to facilitate a more effective city-to-city comparison with respect to, for example, the best practices and solutions that have been put in practice by similar cities in terms of local groundwater resources management. The interdependences between some groundwater services and the cascading effects on city life in cases of shock (e.g., drought, heavy rain, pollution, energy demand) and chronic stress (e.g., climate change) are analyzed, and the ideal groundwater-resilient-city characteristics are proposed. The paper concludes that groundwater is a crucial resource for planning sustainability in every city and for implementing city resilience strategies from the climate change perspective.
Les relations entre les villes et les eaux souterraines sous-jacentes sont examinées, dans le but de souligner l'importance des ressources en eaux souterraines urbaines en termes de valeur de résilience des villes. Des exemples de plus de 70 villes du monde entier sont cités, ainsi que des détails sur leurs problèmes liés aux eaux souterraines, leurs expériences spécifiques et leurs contextes. Les questions liées aux eaux souterraines sont résumées et une première classification des villes en matière d'eaux souterraines est proposée afin de faciliter une comparaison plus efficace entre les villes en ce qui concerne, par exemple, les meilleures pratiques et solutions qui ont été mises en pratique par des villes similaires en termes de gestion locale des ressources en eaux souterraines. Les interdépendances entre certains services liés aux eaux souterraines et les répercussions sur la vie urbaine dans des situations de perturbation (par ex., sécheresse, fortes pluies, pollution, demande énergétique) et de stress chronique (par ex., changement climatique) sont analysés, et les caractéristiques optimales d'une ville résiliente aux eaux souterraines sont proposées. L'article conclut que les eaux souterraines sont une ressource essentielle pour la planification de la durabilité dans chaque ville et pour la mise en œuvre de stratégies de résilience des villes du point de vue du changement climatique.
Se analizan las relaciones entre las ciudades y las aguas subterráneas subyacentes, con el objetivo de destacar la importancia de los recursos hídricos subterráneos urbanos en términos de valor de resiliencia de las ciudades. Se citan ejemplos de más de 70 ciudades de todo el mundo junto con detalles de sus problemas relacionados con las aguas subterráneas, experiencias específicas y entornos. Se resumen los problemas relacionados con las aguas subterráneas y se propone una primera clasificación de ciudades con aguas subterráneas para facilitar una comparación más eficaz entre ciudades con respecto, por ejemplo, a las mejores prácticas y soluciones que han puesto en práctica ciudades similares en cuanto a la gestión de los recursos hídricos subterráneos locales. Se analizan las interdependencias entre algunos servicios de las aguas subterráneas y los efectos en cascada sobre la vida de la ciudad en casos de crisis (por ejemplo, la sequía, las lluvias torrenciales, la contaminación, la demanda de energía) y de estrés crónico (por ejemplo, el cambio climático), y se proponen las características óptimas de una ciudad resiliente a las aguas subterráneas. El documento concluye que las aguas subterráneas son un recurso crucial para la planificación de la sostenibilidad en cada ciudad y para la aplicación de estrategias de resiliencia de la ciudad desde la perspectiva del cambio climático.
综述了城市与潜在地下水之间的关系, 旨在强调城市地下水资源在城市韧性价值中的重要性。引用了全球 70 多个城市说明它们与地下水相关的问题、具体经验和环境条件的详细信息。总结了与地下水相关的问题, 并提出了第一个地下水城市分类, 以便更有效地开展城市与城市之间的比较, 例如相似城市已经在当地地下水资源管理方面进行了类似的最佳实践和解决方案。在冲击(例如干旱、大雨、污染、能源需求)和慢性压力(例如气候变化)的情况下, 分析了地下水服务与对城市生活的级联效应之间的相互依赖关系, 并提出了理想的地下水韧性城市特征。该文发现基于气候变化的视角地下水是城市规划可持续性和实施韧性城市战略的重要资源。
Questo articolo analizza le relazioni tra le città e le relative acque sotterranee, con lo scopo di evidenziarne l'importanza in termini di valore di resilienza urbana. Vengono citati esempi di oltre 70 città in tutto il Mondo assieme a dettagli sul loro assetto idrogeologico, le loro problematiche ed esperienze specifiche sul tema. Nel lavoro vengono riassunte le principali problematiche relative alle acque sotterranee nei contesti urbanizzati e viene proposta una prima classificazione idrogeologica delle città con lo scopo di facilitare un più efficace confronto rispetto, ad esempio, alle migliori pratiche e soluzioni che sono state messe in atto da città simili, in relazione alla gestione della locali risorse idriche sotterranee. Vengono inoltre analizzate le interdipendenze tra acluni servizi forniti dalle acque sotterranee e gli effetti a cascata che la loro interruzione provocherebbe sia in caso di shock (come ad esempio siccità, piogge intense, inquinamento, domanda energetica), sia in caso di stress (come ad esempio il cambiamento climatico), e vengono proposte le caratteristiche che una città (ideale) idrogeologicamente resiliente dovrebbe avere. L'articolo conclude con l’affermare che l’acqua sotterranea è una risorsa cruciale da conoscere per la pianificazione sostenibile nelle città, oltre che per implementare strategie di resilienza cittadine nella prospettiva dei cambiamenti climatici.
As relações entre as cidades e as águas subterrâneas subjacentes são revisadas, com o objetivo de destacar a importância dos recursos hídricos subterrâneos urbanos em termos de benefício para resiliência da cidade. Exemplos de mais de 70 cidades em todo o mundo são citados juntamente com detalhes de suas questões relacionadas às águas subterrâneas, experiências específicas e contextos. As questões relacionadas com as águas subterrâneas são resumidas e é proposta uma primeira classificação de cidades-águas subterrâneas para facilitar uma comparação cidade-a-cidade mais eficaz no que diz respeito, por exemplo, às melhores práticas e soluções que têm sido colocadas em prática por cidades semelhantes em termos de gestão local dos recursos hídricos subterrâneos. As interdependências entre alguns serviços de água subterrânea e os efeitos em cascata na vida da cidade em casos de crises (por exemplo, seca, chuva forte, poluição, demanda de energia) e estresse crônico (por exemplo, mudança climática) são analisados, e as características de uma cidade resiliente de água subterrânea ideal são propostas. O artigo conclui que a água subterrânea é um recurso crucial para o planejamento de sustentabilidade em todas as cidades e para a implementação de estratégias de resiliência da cidade sob a perspectiva das mudanças climáticas.
Avoid common mistakes on your manuscript.
Groundwater is the hidden part of the hydrologic cycle and its being hidden is particularly significant in large urbanized sectors where the few evident groundwater-related phenomena, such as springs or groundwater-fed streams, are usually covered or buried by anthropogenic deposits (Peloggia 2018 ) and infrastructure. Thus, flow and transport processes affecting urban groundwater are not essentially different from those affecting groundwater in rural contexts, but the time and space scales involved are significantly different (Fletcher et al. 2007 ; Vazquez-Sune et al. 2000 ).
As stated by Coaffee and Lee ( 2016 ), “this century is the "century of cities", where rapid urbanization and more significant global connectivity present unprecedented urban challenges and risks in urban areas, making them increasingly vulnerable to a range of shocks and stresses”. Moreover, urbanization is a worldwide trend, with more than 55% of the world's population currently living in cities, reaching 70% in Europe (UN 2019 ); thus, the urban water cycle is a crucial issue for ensuring the supply of safe (good quality) water, sanitation and correct drainage systems for so many citizens. Furthermore, human activities such as land-use change, substantial withdrawals, and wastewater discharge can have a greater impact on groundwater systems and hydrogeology than climate change, causing changes in the qualitative and quantitative state of both surface water and groundwater. Consequently, urban water and groundwater management poses not only scientific but also technical, socio-economic, cultural, and ethical challenges (Afonso et al. 2020 ).
In the interests of adequate and long-term groundwater protection, urban planners and lawmakers should fully integrate an understanding of the subsoil into the deliberation/decision-making process. Where appropriate, they should take into account the hydrogeological setting, the groundwater flow dynamics, and the extended time frames over which impacts of land use on groundwater can occur (Howard 1997 ).
As stated by Lerner ( 1997 ), “urban groundwater could be both an asset and a problem: it could be an asset because of its value for water supply for human consumption, and several uses (industrial, irrigation, fire prevention), it could be a problem because of the health risk from pollution, but also because of the interference with urban infrastructure”. Always according to Lerner ( 1997 ) overexploitation under the city area determines the lowering of the water table and subsidence issues; on the other hand, in the later stages of city development, the abstraction rates decrease determining the rising of the water table that can flood buried infrastructure. However, the groundwater resource offers unique advantages compared with other types of water resources. It may be more widely available, less vulnerable to climate change, of superior quality, and cheaper to develop and distribute (Sharp Jr 1997 ).
There are three main functions of urban groundwater management: water supply provision, wastewater disposal, and engineering infrastructure development and maintenance. According to Morris et al. ( 1997 ), “the key to sustainable city development is reconciling these three legitimate but different and potentially conflicting functions”. Moreover, not all cities can count on a local water supply or local wastewater treatment and thus the effects of associated water management strategies can impact much wider water catchment sectors even many kilometers away from the city area.
As stated by Schirmer et al. ( 2013 ), “the issues concerning the management of urban water resources are not new; in fact the cities need a reliable supply of clean drinking water on the one hand, and on the other hand, contaminated urban groundwater and wastewater have to be treated, and stormwater has to be managed. These necessary tasks have substantial overlap with ‘integrated urban water management’ schemes”. This approach can also be defined with the concept of "One Water" introduced by Howe and Mukheibir ( 2015 ), which describes this comprehensive and long-term approach to community-based water management. One Water considers the urban water cycle as a single integrated system. A One Water approach recognizes all urban water supplies as resources – surface water, groundwater, stormwater, and wastewater (Howe and Mukheibir 2015 ) with a holistic sense, as part of cities' resilience.
The resilience of cities has recently become a persistent item in the agenda for many city governments (Leitner et al. 2018 ). In the last years, many non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have launched different programs for cities and megacities to foster processes that incorporate resilience strategies (Da Silva and Morera 2014 ; Day et al. 2018 ), and many city best-practice exchange workshops have been organized. The term "urban resilience", after Meerow et al. ( 2016 ), has been described as "the ability of an urban system and all its constituent socio-ecological and socio-technical networks across the temporal and spatial system, to maintain or rapidly return to desired functions in the face of a disturbance, to adapt to change, and to transform systems that limit current or future adaptive capacity quickly".
Coaffee and Lee ( 2016 ) synthesized and described the main terms or keywords that underlie cities’ resilience as follows, also referring to other authors:
“Cyclicality is at the base of every resilience approach due to the nature of cyclical processes involving several overlapping stages;
Redundancy is the co-existence of diverse options fulfilling the same purpose and ensuring functionality in the event of the failure of one of them; it can also be attained through the identification of synergies amongst seemingly diverse realms or sectors, which in turn prompts the design of buildings, spaces, and infrastructure that can be used (or can be adapted to be used) in multiple ways (Caputo et al. 2015 );
Adaptation is a critical concept that captures the capacity of a system to learn, combine experience and knowledge, and adjust its response to changing external drivers and internal processes (Folke et al. 2010 );
Mitigation is the sum of those actions to reduce or eliminate long-term risk to people and infrastructure from a range of stresses and their effects;
Preparedness is mainly focused on anticipating events and creating a response capability and better awareness , both for city managers and city technicians on one hand and for citizens in the other;
Response is the phase that involves action taken during and immediately after a shock event occurs, focusing on minimizing damage and allowing a system to re-establish base functionality as rapidly as possible;
Recovery is the phase seeking to utilize the attributes of responsiveness and involves short-term or long-term phases of rebuilding and restoration to return to normality or a new (better) normality, learning from previous errors (reflexivity).”
The methodology for achieving the assessment of cities’ resilience and its enhancement often follows the same path, even if with different nuances; a city’s aspects are evaluated through a holistic approach, interdependences and cascading effects of each measured aspect, and a final resilience strategy is proposed following the political vision.
This paper reviews the relationships between cities and groundwater and discusses the interdependences with respect to other aspects, the related cascading effects, and thus the potential resilience value of the in-depth knowledge and correct management strategy.
There are several important review works in literature that address the matter of “urban groundwater”. This work did not aim to refresh these exhaustive papers since it sees the same matter from another perspective. The review activity started by reading the handy compendiums edited by Chilton et al. ( 1997 ), Chilton ( 1997 ) and Howard ( 2007 ) and furtherly took into consideration other review papers, such as the works of Lerner ( 2002 ), Herringshaw ( 2007 ) and Schirmer et al. ( 2013 ). After the review papers, many more specific works on peculiar issues or city case studies were analyzed. The structure of this paper is thus organized firstly to list as many urban groundwater issues as possible, secondly to cluster cities from a hydrogeological point of view, and then to summarize as many groundwater-related best practices implemented by cities as possible. The review discussion is approached by looking at the “resilience value” that a city can achieve through the virtuous management of local groundwater resources. Fig. 1 shows all the 73 cities cited within the text (reported in a table in the Appendix Table 5 as well as in a factsheet available in electronic supplementary materials - ESM) as examples of groundwater-related issues or characteristics or best practices.
Locations of cities cited in the text; the labels correspond to the citation order within the text, while the symbol dimension is proportional to the number of inhabitants (base map from Google Maps). A list of cited cities with relative state and city typology is reported in the Appendix Table 5 and in the electronic supplementary material (ESM)
Urban exponential development and sprawl vs. abandonment of rural areas, and the change of water demand
On a global scale, more than half of the world’s people live in urban areas today (UN 2019 ) and out of this urban population, two out of three are in developing countries. By 2025, four urban dwellers will be in developing countries for each one in the developed world (Vairavamoorthy et al. 2008 ).
Urbanization is a complex process of change of rural lifestyles into urban ones, and it has shown almost exponential growth since the end of the 19 th century (Antrop 2004 ). City populations eat enormous amounts of food which they import from the countryside, often far away. Megacities alone import as much water as what crosses national borders in all the international food trade (Varis et al. 2006 ); in addition, it should be considered that people who once lived in rural villages, where a reliable water supply was not widely available, but moved to the cities, significantly increased their contribution to the general water demand. The people in urban and urbanizing areas require water, and groundwater supply issues stem from these demands (Sharp Jr 1997 ). As stated by Foster et al. ( 1999 ), “the provision of water supply, sanitation, and drainage are vital elements of the urbanization process which often coexists with the prevalence of informal groundwater abstraction; in fact, significant differences in the development sequence exist between higher-income areas, where it is (or it should be) generally planned, and lower-income areas of developing nations, where informal settlements are progressively consolidated in urban areas with rapid growth of unregulated/uncontrolled groundwater supplies”.
“The urban growth characterized by an excessive increase in urban land uses, decreasing urban density, and a spatially dispersed distribution of households and economic functions” is defined by Siedentop and Fina ( 2012 ) as ‘urban sprawl’. According to Stevenazzi ( 2017 ), urban sprawl significantly impacts the environment, the social structure and the economy, and has the following effects on groundwater: “(a) the increase of non-point sources of contamination related to urban activities; (b) the reduction of the capacity of soil to act as a filter for contamination sources; (c) the decrease of permeable surface area, which influences the quantity of groundwater recharge; and (d) changes to surface water and groundwater interactions.”
In many fast-developing cities informal settlements grow on marginal land or in periurban districts, thus, the effect of urban water supply and wastewater disposal will consequently interest also the surroundings. As a consequence, as highlighted by Morris et al. ( 1997 ), “water supplies originally obtained from shallow underlying aquifers may no longer be sufficient, either because the available resource is too limited or because of quality deterioration from pollution and thus, the extra water resources required will either be tapped from deeper aquifers, or more often, will be drawn from aquifers or surface water bodies in the city hinterland area”. According to Foster et al. ( 2020 ), “in-situ residential self-supply from groundwater is a 'booming phenomenon' in numerous sub-Saharan Africa cities, which are experiencing unprecedented rates of urban population growth, and widely represents a significant proportion of the water received by users”.
Sharp Jr ( 1997 ) stated that “solutions for increased water demand must follow one or more of the three following options: reduce water demands, use available waters more efficiently or increase water supplies”. As it is not possible to limit the population growth, decreased demand could be achieved by publicly promoting water consumption reduction and sustainable use, while several actions can be put into practice to achieve water conservation by reducing water-main losses. When increasing water supply is not sustainable or possible, the objectives can be met presently by conjunctive use of secondary water sources such as harvesting rain and stormwater or utilizing non-potable waters.
Groundwater awareness in cities
When a city administrator wants to increase the city's resilience, there are usually many actions that can be undertaken or developed, both structural and non-structural. Structural actions are those which need works in order to obtain the result (e.g., a wall to protect a road from a landslide); non-structural actions are those that achieve their desired effects directly by influencing people behavior (e.g. a public campaign on rising awareness of landslides). Usually, "structural" actions are very effective and involve a lot of time and money to be implemented, while "non-structural" actions are often implemented at a meager cost but require substantial interdisciplinary and inter-institutional work, often with the involvement of the population itself. The first "non-structural" resilience action that can be implemented usually is to raise citizen awareness. This action is even more relevant to the situation involving groundwater because, in reality, groundwater is usually not visible and its concept is often more challenging to understand for most people. Several instruments allow citizen groundwater awareness to increase and are listed as follows.
Monitoring groundwater and surface water resources is a critical step in improving the urban water system and reducing water use and degradation., but it is also a very effective instrument to increase the citizens' awareness; the saying "you cannot manage what you do not measure" applies well to groundwater and urban groundwater management (Bonsor et al. 2017 ).
Furthermore, different groundwater management approaches are used in metropolitan areas across the world. As a result, hydrogeological monitoring is required for a variety of applications, including: preserving groundwater resources; establishing groundwater protection zones in newly urbanized areas; analyzing groundwater potential; recognizing groundwater vulnerability; estimating the recharge caused by sewer and pipe leakage; documenting the historical evolution of urban groundwater systems. The challenge is to identify the cause and time of groundwater changes. Appropriate monitoring networks need to be designed for the stated purpose, e.g., bringing about the distinction between shallow and deep urban aquifers. Moreover, as sometimes city catchment surfaces are subject to frequent changes, it is very important to precisely define the elevation of monitoring stations, in order to avoid poor definition of the groundwater flow gradient (La Vigna and Baiocchi 2021 ).
Not all cities have a dedicated groundwater monitoring network, even if the number of drillings and water wells is typically high and the distribution usually is wide. In some cases, instead, city-scale groundwater monitoring is a reality. For example, Miami (Florida, USA), has a real-time monitoring network managed by the US Geological Survey (Prinos et al. 2002 ). In the Beijing city area (China), a monitoring network has been working since the 1960s and, despite some periods of not working, the network data coming from hundreds of wells allow one to see the water table behavior very well during the monitored periods (Zhou et al. 2013 ). To monitor changes in the quantity of groundwater resources and their quality, the metropolitan government of Seoul (South Korea) established a local groundwater monitoring network in 1997 consisting of 119 monitoring wells (Lee et al. 2005 ). Rome municipality (Italy) has recently organized its irrigation wells as part of the city monitoring network (La Vigna et al. 2015b ) and detailed the monitoring activity in some heritage sites (Mastrorillo et al. 2016 ). Other examples are the monitoring network of Cardiff (UK), which is monitoring the groundwater levels and temperature also to control groundwater thermal variations due to shallow open-loop ground-source heat pumps (Patton et al. 2020 ), the network of the City of Bucharest (Romania) (Gaitanaru et al. 2017 ), and that of Glasgow (UK). In general, Dutch and German cities have monitoring networks, with a significant development in Amsterdam (The Netherlands), with more than 2500 monitoring stations bimonthly measured (Bonsor et al. 2017 ), and Munich (Germany), with almost 500 monitoring wells (Menberg et al. 2013 ).
City-scale hydrogeological maps and 3D numerical models
More detailed hydrogeological mapping is required in urbanizing areas to reduce setting uncertainties, to enable groundwater utilization and sustainable management, and to make groundwater more visible for non-experts. This is especially critical when various water supply options are considered. In addition, detailed hydrogeological maps are crucial for solving urban planning issues (Sharp Jr 1997 ) e.g., to identify areas suitable for projects that could interact with aquifers such as stormwater infiltration or industrial plant locations. Some examples of cities having specific official city-scale hydrogeological maps are Rome (Italy) (La Vigna et al. 2015c ; La Vigna et al. 2016 ), Moscow (Russia) (Osipov 2015 ), Bucharest (Romania) (Gaitanaru et al. 2013 ), Porto (Portugal) (Afonso et al. 2007a ).
Moreover, in order to better understand and manage all the interactions between groundwater, the environment, and underground structures (Attard et al. 2016b ), and in order to manage provisional scenarios of groundwater dynamics, three-dimensional (3D) city-scale numerical models have been built sometimes, as done (e.g.) for the cities of Bucharest (Romania) (Boukhemacha et al. 2015 ; Gogu et al. 2015 ), Paris (France) (Thierry et al. 2009 ), Lyon (France) (Attard et al. 2016a ), Milan (Italy) (Colombo 2017 ; Gorla et al. 2016 ) and London (UK) (Jones et al. 2012 ).
According to Schirmer et al. ( 2013 ), “since only part of the groundwater system can be measured, water and contaminant flow and transport models are indispensable; the urban groundwater compartment interacts closely with the unsaturated zone, sewage systems, and surface water.” Groundwater models often must be coupled to the other compartments holistically. Such models are defined as IUWS (integrated urban water systems) models (Schirmer et al. 2013 ).
Local or extra-city-boundary water supply
In many urban and peri-urban areas, there are cases in which local aquifers cannot meet the quantity and quality of water needs of the growing population. Thus, extensive supply waterworks have been developed, and local aquifers have been progressively abandoned except for marginal uses, losing or downgrading their considerable potential, at least as an essential emergency water service (Custodio 1997 ). According to Morris et al. ( 1997 ) the impact of a city on local groundwater can be progressive and hand in hand with urban development. A city is not static; it grows and changes with time, and its effects on the groundwater system too (Shanahan 2009 ). For cities that supply from local groundwater, at the beginning of the city growing period, the affected water table is normally below the city area with a wide cone of depression due to the many supply wells; when the city expands the water supply moves towards the peri-urban field and the water table in the central area starts to rise due to the local withdrawal stopping (in response to changes in the local water demand and/or changes in the local groundwater quality), and due to the "urban" recharge as well. In some cases, and with several historical examples, the water supply catchment has moved outside the city boundaries by several kilometers, affecting other catchments and basins, and water is brought into the city through important aqueducts (Angelakis and Mays 2014 ).
In most cases where groundwater is the main or sole source of water supply for the municipality, e.g., for the city of Christchurch (New Zealand), (Mudd et al. 2004 ), and where urban abstraction wells are mainly located within city limits, the groundwater withdrawal will significantly exceed the long-term rate of recharge. Moreover, where the local abstraction is mainly focused on high-quality and deeper groundwater, substantial volumes of shallow more vulnerable groundwater will often be available and suitable for many uses (Morris et al. 1997 ).
In many cities where the municipal water supply service is (or has been) inadequate, many private water wells have been drilled over time. According to Foster and Hirata ( 2011 ), “the growth in private urban groundwater use is not restricted to cities with ready access to high-yielding aquifers, an it is often even more pronounced where minor shallow aquifers occur”: for example, this happens in Lagos (Nigeria), one of the world's five megacities, where the majority of the population uses wells (either boreholes or hand-dug) for drinking and domestic purposes (Adelana et al. 2008 ), or in Nairobi (Kenya), where private drilling by commercial, industrial and multi-residential users grew from around 1990 and the number of active water wells is believed to exceed 5000, contributing to the general local groundwater resource depletion, with water levels falling 50-100 m in the past 30 years (Foster et al. 2019 ).
The “world” of shallow urban groundwater
Commonly, shallow urban groundwater is frequently overlooked or ineffectively managed, in large part because it is often poorly understood and studied. The urban shallow aquifers have, however, an essential role in city life: providing several ecosystem services in the cities, including maintaining healthy urban river flows; supporting groundwater-dependent ecosystems and habitats; attenuating some pollutants; mitigating the impacts of extreme rainfall events, welcoming the infiltration water through sustainable drainage systems; providing water for urban tree roots (Dochartaigh et al. 2019 ).
On the other hand, the shallow urban underground is an intricate network of tunnels, conduits, utilities, and other buried structures comparable to a natural karst system, except that this "urban karst" is generated much more rapidly (Garcia-Fresca 2007 ); the relationship between this network and the shallow aquifer systems below cities is sometimes a challenge and a mutual threat. For this reason, in some cities, such as (e.g.) Glasgow (UK) (Dochartaigh et al. 2019 ) or Rome (Italy) (Clausi et al. 2019 ), particular importance is being given to understanding shallow aquifers better. Furthermore, in some cities where thick strata of anthropogenic deposits, or artificial ground (Ford et al. 2010 ), is widely present, shallow groundwater is usually flowing in these anthropogenic aquifers.
The citizens’ groundwater awareness – making the invisible visible
Where several actions related to groundwater use, monitoring, protection, and eventual abstraction reduction are contemplated, as noted by Briscoe ( 1993 ), “it will be technically and economically more feasible if the policy can be implemented through dissemination activities or some form of a water-user group organized within the community or municipal framework” in order to increase citizen groundwater awareness. According to Tanner et al. ( 2009 ) climate change in urban areas affects the poorest and most vulnerable, first disproportionately and most severely, thus, their integration in decision-making and policy processes is crucial for building climate resilience in order to improve the living conditions for those living in informal settlements or in exposed locations.
As in cities the water consumption is normally very high, they are very good laboratories to promote policies to reduce water footprint. "Simple" demand-reduction tools, such as suitable pricing, rainwater collecting, or wastewater recycling, can have huge impacts when broadly implemented and enforced on families and industry (Engel et al. 2011 ). Involving marginalized groups in management solutions and implementation is crucial, as the success of Karachi's Orangi Pilot Project in Pakistan demonstrates (Orangi Pilot Project 1995 ). This project, as reported by Engel et al. ( 2011 ), “gave residents in poor communities the resources and engineering expertise to help solve their environmental challenges. An NGO started the project in the 1980s in Orangi Town, a cluster of low-income settlements in Karachi (Pakistan) with a population of 1.2 million. The project's initial focus was sewer improvements. Residents constructed sewer channels to collect waste from their homes, and these were then connected to neighborhood channels, which ultimately discharged into the municipal trunk sewer”.
Sometimes the involvement of citizens is formal and aims to increase the base knowledge (La Vigna et al. 2017 ), sometimes creative and interactive instruments have been proposed to the citizens, such as visioning exercises: for example, the London 2036 gaming model (Wiek and Iwaniec 2014 ) was presented to a sample of 15,000 people by way of questions on water resources, housing and transport. In this activity, as reported by Bricker et al. ( 2017 ), “each participant was provided with a forecasted future for London (UK) unique to their answers, which also evaluated water availability concerning some actions to be implemented, thus allowing participants to reflect on the implications of their responses. As well as providing participants with individual feedback on future scenarios, results from the gaming models provide an informal insight to assess the public acceptance of new initiatives and policy decisions for London”.
Student involvement has been tested (e.g.) in Adelaide (Australia) with the Groundwater Watch summer program in 1993/1994. In this experience, student volunteers from 32 South Australian high schools participated in a summer vacation groundwater education and sampling program, which provided valuable quality-assured data. In addition, this experience resulted in an increased awareness of urban groundwater by students, bore owners, and the community via the considerable media attention the program received (Dillon and Pavelic 1997 ).
In other cases, citizens have been involved in providing an emergency water supply system to use in case of necessity. An example is a Japanese case put into practice after the Hanshin-Awaji earthquake (Mw 7.3) in 1995, which caused water supply interruption for around 1,270,000 households and many hospitals (Tanaka 2008 ). Despite this shock caused by the earthquake, it was possible to pump groundwater from several wells immediately after the earthquake, due to their resilience against the seismic effects, thus, a registration system of citizen-owned wells was established in 1996 in Kobe. Within the next two years, 517 suitable emergency wells were registered, equipped with a hand pump, and their location entered on maps. Based on the Kobe experience, many municipal and local Japanese governments have established similar emergency water-well systems to be used as safe water sources in an emergency: the Tokyo Metropolitan Government with 2,769 emergency wells in 23 districts, and the Yokohama City, with 3,517 registered wells, where water quality checks were conducted monthly to the same analytical standard as for municipal supply water (Guo et al. 2011 ).
Groundwater awareness is crucial for the interpretation of urban groundwater management for a vital urban groundwater monitoring network. In addition, operating public groundwater observation wells can help make groundwater visible, and displaying the results via the internet increases the visibility (Bonsor et al. 2017 ).
Groundwater city classification
It is always challenging to try clustering cities, but there are very peculiar hydrogeological settings and/or climate contexts, and/or geographical locations, that determine specific groundwater flow characteristics, and thus, it is possible to propose a sort of general classification. Not all climate contexts are considered, but just those having a clear connection with groundwater dynamics. Many cities are not easily attributable to a single category but a combination of the following.
A resume of the following proposed groundwater city classification is available as Electronic Supplementary Materials ( ESM ).
Coastal, lagoon, and delta groundwater cities (CGC - LDGC)
Coastal, lagoon, and deltaic cities are hydrogeologically in connection with the “zone of transition” where the seawater/freshwater interface is below the ground surface (Fig. 2 ). Depending on their geological setting, coastal and lagoon cities can experience different groundwater-related issues. Coastal and deltaic cities located on soft sedimentary soils, such as (e.g.) Huston (USA), Jakarta (Indonesia), Shangai (China), Venice (Italy), and Kolkata/Calcutta (India), may be subjected to severe subsidence related to overdraft and this can also contribute to an increase in the local coastal hazards. Overexploitation of aquifers under coastal cities or interior cities located near the coast can also cause saltwater intrusion. This phenomenon is significant for cities on oceanic islands (Sharp Jr 1997 ). Examples of cities affected by seawater intrusion are Dakar (Senegal) and Cape Town (South Africa) in Africa (Adelana et al. 2008 ), Manila (Philippines), Chennai (India), and Jakarta (Indonesia) in Asia (King 2003 ), and Buenos Aires (Argentina) (Engel et al. 2011 ) and Recife (Brazil) in South America (Montenegro et al. 2006 ). In Tripoli (Libya), seawater intrusion steadily increased from 1960 to 2007, when potable water was available from the local aquifer; since 1999, a loss of 60% in well production in the upper aquifer has been observed (Alfarrah and Walraevens 2018 ). Some cities, such as Bangkok (Thailand), are suffering both aquifer compaction-related subsidence (IGES 2007 ) and seawater intrusion (Foster et al. 2019 ).
Coastal and lagoon/delta groundwater cities conceptualization – These kinds of cities are in correspondence with the “zone of transition” where the seawater/freshwater interface is below the ground surface. When these cities are located on soft sedimentary soils, they can be subjected to severe subsidence as a result of overdraft and this can also contribute to an increase in the local coast-related hazard
Delta cities can also be impacted by saltwater intrusion through the main river mouth, typically during the dry season when the river discharge rate is lower. This phenomenon can also generate a change in saltwater/freshwater equilibrium in the groundwater, as occurring (e.g.) in Shangai (China) (Engel et al. 2011 ); along the Tiber River in the coastal sector of Rome (Italy) salt-wedge intrusion can occur during periods of the high river discharge rate, mainly due to the wind effect contributing to the increase the local river and aquifer salinity (Manca et al. 2014 ).
Volcanic groundwater cities (VGC)
Depending on the volcano’s typology, cities located on, or close to, volcanic districts are characterized by aquifers with a particular setting usually influenced by the volcanic depositional activity, with frequent abrupt changes in permeability (Fig. 3 ). Moreover, thermalized and mineralized groundwater is frequently found, even if the volcano is quiescent or no longer active, and the presence of natural background contaminants is possible in these contexts due to the volcanic nature of the rocks. For example, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) is dominated by volcanic materials of different ages and compositions, and the deepest wells reach a thermal aquifer in the center of the city (Adelana et al. 2008 ). Several important Italian cities grew up in a volcanic context: Rome is located between two volcanic districts (Colli Albani Volcano and Sabatini Volcano), Naples is between the Phlegrean Volcanic Fields and the Somma-Vesuvius Volcano, and Catania is on the side of Mt. Etna Volcano. The groundwater of these cities is hydraulically, thermally, and chemically influenced by the volcanic presence: in Rome, several aquifers are sustained by tuff products acting as aquitard and groundwater is locally thermalized with temperature values reaching 22°C (La Vigna et al. 2016 ; Mazza et al. 2015 ); in Naples, the CO 2 upwelling along the faults increases the HCO 3 content in groundwater and also determines the solution of Fe and Mn in some aquifers, sometimes modifying the natural relationship between freshwater and saltwater and creating a natural seawater intrusion (Corniello and Ducci 2019 ); in Catania, the principal aquifers are inside vast lava flows, which are very productive due to their high degree of secondary permeability (Ferrara and Pappalardo 2008 ).
Volcanic groundwater cities conceptualization - These kinds of cities are characterized by aquifers with a particular setting, usually influenced by the volcanic depositional activity, with frequent abrupt changes in permeability. Moreover, thermalized and mineralized groundwater is frequently found, even if the volcano is quiescent or no longer active; also the presence of natural background contaminants is possible in these contexts due to the volcanic nature of rocks. Where cities have a long history there is the possibility that shallow volcanic rocks (especially tuff deposits) were mined for quarrying building materials and thus there are underground caves which can increase the surface instability, and there is the possibility that these caves are used for illegal waste disposal, with negative consequences for groundwater as well
In Reykjavik (Iceland), most households are heated with geothermal water or geothermally heated freshwater from district heating services that use advanced technologies to process, transfer, and use geothermal heat (EEA 2010 ). Where cities have a long history there is the possibility that shallow volcanic rocks (especially tuff deposits) were mined for quarrying building materials and thus there are underground caves which can increase the surface instability, and the possibility for these caves to be used for illegal waste disposal, with negative consequences for groundwater as well.
Hard-rock and karst groundwater cities (HRGC - KGC)
Hard-rock cities are those cities that grew up on massive rocks and thus are mainly characterized by fissured aquifers or, in the case of carbonate rocks, also by karst aquifers (Fig. 4 ). For example, Porto (Portugal) developed on granites and a gneiss-mica schist complex, and the local groundwater flow paths are mainly governed by secondary permeability features such as faults, fractures, and fissures locally enhanced by weathering to produce discontinuous productive zones (Afonso et al. 2007b , 2020 ). In Colombo (Sri Lanka), over 90% of the entire non-coastal area lies on the metamorphic hard-rock formation (quartzite and marble); there exists a weathered water-bearing rock formation over the hard rock that accommodates a fair amount of groundwater resources (Herath and Ratnayake 2007 ). In the Eastern Precambrian province of Brazil, the urban area of Sao Paulo is the most heavily populated and industrialized area of the country, and most groundwater is obtained from discontinuous bodies of sand of Tertiary age and fractures and joints in the Precambrian rocks (Schneider 1963 ). Hard-rock groundwater cities with a karst bedrock can be defined as karst groundwater cities (KGC), such as the Orlando area (Florida, USA), where at least 11 new sinkholes (mean diameter is 9 m and the mean depth is 5 m) open up each year, and their development has been considered connected to groundwater level variations. The Orlando area is described by Wilson and Beck ( 1992 ) as located “on a thickly mantled karst area, and sinkholes form by cover collapse or, less commonly, cover subsidence. Many new sinkholes occur here during April and May, when groundwater levels are usually at seasonal low stands; when the potentiometric surface declines below its mode, more sinkholes than expected per unit time occur”.
Hard-rock and karst groundwater cities conceptualization - These kinds of cities are characterized by the presence of massive rocks and thus they are mainly characterized by fissured aquifers or, in the case of carbonate rocks, also by karst aquifers. Groundwater circulation is also possible in more degraded sectors of rock mass. In karst contexts, the groundwater also has an important role in triggering sinkhole formation
Alluvial groundwater cities (AGC)
Alluvial groundwater cities (Foster et al. 2010 ) can be considered those which are developed in alluvial or generally sedimentary depositional basins (Fig. 5 ) or in basins characterized by glacial deposits, where their thickness allows for groundwater circulation that can be useful or can cause interference with the city. Due to the flat morphology that characterizes this kind of geological context and the frequent presence of watercourses, many cities worldwide are in this category. In alluvial contexts, the frequent multilayer setting of the geological units influences the aquifer system geometry; here the quality of abstracted groundwater is typically good when exploiting the deeper aquifers, while the shallower ones are more vulnerable and thus subject to pollution and anthropic pressure. Between the many cities which are in such a context it is possible to cite as examples Berlin and Munich (Germany) (Menberg et al. 2013 ), Milan (Italy), Lucknow (India), Paris (France), Beijing (China), Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam) (IGES 2007 ), and Mexico City (Mexico).
Alluvial groundwater cities conceptualization- These kinds of cities developed on alluvial or generally sedimentary depositional basins (Fig. 5 ) or in basins characterized by glacial deposits, where their thickness allows groundwater circulation that is useful or interferes with the city. The frequent multilayer setting of the geological units influences the aquifers’ geometry. Subsidence is a typical issue of AGC, especially when aquifers are overexploited
When alluvial groundwater cities arise in piedmont zones, the groundwater setting is usually influenced by the aquifers in the mountains. An example of a piedmont alluvial groundwater city is Beni Mellal City (Morocco), which is characterized by a karst limestone bedrock aquifer in the south and an alluvial multilayer aquifer system in the north, and some outcropping travertines above (El Baghdadi et al. 2019 ). It is also possible in AGC that the deepest aquifers are in artesian condition, as occurs in Kyiv (Ukraine) where good quality groundwater can be easily withdrawn without using pumps (Shestopalov et al. 2000 ).
The AGC located in former glacial contexts (e.g. Manchester (UK), Arnhardt and Burke 2020 ) are composed of glaciofluvial sands and gravels occurring as blanket bodies or as channel deposits in alluvial plains and buried bedrock valleys. Tills are also a major component of glacial terrain and can either behave as aquifers or aquitards since they display highly variable hydraulic conductivities (Ravier and Buoncristiani 2018 ).
Cold climate groundwater cities (CCGC)
Cities located in regions of the northern hemisphere (subarctic or arctic climate - Obu et al. 2019 ) have sometimes to deal with permafrost and its related issues (Fig. 6 ). The permafrost, a type of ground which remains at a temperature below 0°C for at least two consecutive years, affects all hydrologic, geomorphic, and biologic processes in some arctic places, as for example the Siberian plain, reaches several tens or hundreds of meters in depth and it usually constitutes a real barrier to natural aquifer recharge. Furthermore, cities built on permafrost can trigger several issues related to shallow groundwater in this environment. First, the urban infrastructure and buildings themselves induce a heat island effect that contributes to the ground thawing. Changes in the ground thermal regime can, in fact, greatly reduce the permafrost's capacity to carry structural loads imposed by buildings and structures, as experienced (e.g.) in Norilsk (Russia) (Shiklomanov et al. 2017 ), where about 60% of buildings have been damaged by permafrost thaw, or in the Mohe County (China), where urbanization has a significant influence on permafrost degradation (Yu et al. 2014 ). Moreover, the losses from city water and wastewater infrastructures, which are warmer than the permafrost, contribute to the ground thawing and generate local shallow groundwater circulation systems. Coupled with the general global warming trend, the melting effects on permafrost and cities built above it are considerable.
Cold climate groundwater cities conceptualization - These kinds of cities sometimes have to deal with permafrost and its related issues. Permafrost usually constitutes a real barrier to natural aquifer recharge; moreover, the urban infrastructure and buildings themselves (together with climate change) induce a heat island effect that contributes to the ground thawing generating ground instability
Notwithstanding the general low recharge capacity and the difficulties in reaching productive aquifers, the presence of taliks (areas of unfrozen ground surrounded by permafrost) allows considerable recharge and connection between unfrozen aquifers (Pavlova et al. 2020 ). In such conditions, there is thus the possibility to reach groundwater for local community supply, even if dealing with technical difficulties sometimes, especially during the past, as reported (e.g.) by Chu ( 2017 ) for the city of Yakutsk (Russia). Although rarer, some cities, villages, and anthropic infrastructure in mountain environments can deal with permafrost issues, like those located in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (China) (Cheng and Jin 2013 ).
Arid climate groundwater cities (ACGC)
As stressed by Sharp et al. ( 2003 ) “in general, aquifers run little chance of being exhausted. However, exceptions may occur in arid or semi-arid regions” (Fig. 7 ) where, due to the very scarce rainfalls, perennial rivers and lakes usually do not exist, and surface water resources are scarce to absent, except for the mountainous areas. Some arid zones have very shallow groundwater systems which are more sensitive to the few seasonal recharge events, or very deep “fossil” groundwater resources, which are sometimes very large but not renewable (Foster and Loucks 2006 ), such as the case of the Mega Aquifer System (MAS) in the Arabian Peninsula (Sultan et al. 2019 ). From the climate change perspective, such cities could be the first to experience problems with water supply soon.
Arid climate groundwater cities conceptualization - These kinds of cities have sometimes very shallow groundwater systems which are more sensitive to the few seasonal recharge events, or sometimes very deep “fossil” groundwater resources, which are sometimes huge but not renewable
One peculiar issue associated with arid-climate cities is reported by Shanahan ( 2009 ): “over time, low-hydraulic-conductivity hardpans develop in desert soils from the residuals left by evaporation; when a city arises over these hardpans, the water added by leakage from water and sewer lines and irrigation of parks and gardens can stagnate on the hardpan layer and cause surface flooding and water intrusion into buildings”. Kuwait City (Kuwait), for example, due to this phenomenon, has seen water tables rise as much as 5 m (Al-Rashed and Sherif 2001 ).
To cite some other ACGC, Tucson (Arizona, USA) uses groundwater from the Avra Valley, which receives minimal recharge so that this aquifer is essentially being mined. Although permanent depletion is not generally a threat, it is easy for a growing city's demands to exceed an aquifer's safe yield. Of concern are situations in which water levels drop so far that pumping becomes very expensive or water yields are severely diminished (Sharp Jr et al. 2003 ). For example, in Waco and Dallas (Texas, USA), artesian aquifers formerly fed wells that were free-flowing, but water levels have fallen many tens of meters and the artesian condition has been lost (Sharp Jr 1997 ).
General urban groundwater-related issues
Several issues relating to the interaction between groundwater dynamics, properties, and the city fabric can be identified. Some of the issues listed below are general issues that are possible in any kind of groundwater-city, some are instead typical of specific city typology.
Changes to the water cycle and rise of the water table
According to Lerner ( 1997 ), the classical view that cities reduce recharge because of the high proportion of impermeable surfaces has been recognized as incorrect. Although hydrologists have shown that urbanization increases storm runoff (Scalenghe and Marsan 2009 ), there is no direct evidence that the increased runoff is at the expense of recharge, and it may well be at the expense of evapotranspiration, given the reduced plant cover in cities. In addition, water losses from water mains and sewer systems lead to additional groundwater recharge (e.g., Minnig et al. 2018 ). Hydrometeorologists have shown that cities have microclimates with increased dust in the air and higher temperatures, affecting precipitation and evapotranspiration rates. More critical for recharge is how the hydrological pathways are altered due to rainfall interception by relatively impervious surfaces such as roofs, roads, and other sealing infrastructure.
The widely recognized changes to the groundwater cycle in urbanized areas, are synthesized by Howard et al. ( 2015 ) as follows:
“Substantial increases in recharge, because the reduction consequent upon land impermeabilization is more than compensated by water mains leakage, wastewater seepage, stormwater soak ways, and excess garden irrigation.
Large subsurface contaminant load from in-situ sanitation, sewer leakage, inadequate storage and handling of community and industrial chemicals, and disposal of liquid effluents and solid wastes.
Significant discharge because of inflow to deep collector sewers and infrastructure drains.”
These urban modifications are in continuous evolution, resulting in changes to the groundwater regime, which can seriously reduce the resilience of urban infrastructure (Howard et al. 2015 ).
The application of strict rules (mainly for environmental reasons) on groundwater extraction in urban areas, and the evolution of local groundwater demand over time, can lead to a significant rise in groundwater table which can be a significant hazard for urban structures (Marinos and Kavvadas 1997 ). Johnson ( 1994 ) listed several adverse effects of groundwater-level rise on both subsurface structures and on the environment, which have been reported together with other examples in Table 1 .
To propose some examples, in London (UK), rising groundwater is now flowing in subsurface structures built during the time of a lower groundwater level; as reported by Shanahan ( 2009 ), “the water levels measured in an observation well at Trafalgar Square in the downtown area reached its lowest levels in the 1950s and early 1960s, but have since recovered nearly 50 m due to reduced groundwater pumping”. In Rome (Italy), groundwater flooding effects are more evident in the reclamation areas close to the city's coastal sector, where a flooding component due to groundwater rise has been recently recognized (Mancini et al. 2020 ). Finally, in Buenos Aires (Argentina), the "rebound" of the water table has caused malfunction of in-situ sanitation systems, overloading, and overflowing of sewers, flooding of basements, rising dampness in domestic dwellings, and disruption to parts of the urban infrastructure (Foster et al. 2010 ).
Artificial recharge from water and wastewater network losses
According to Foster et al. ( 1994 ), “the urbanization effect on recharge rate arises both from modifications to the natural infiltration system, such as surface sealing and changes in natural drainage, but also from the introduction of the water service network, which is invariably associated with a large volume of water mains leakage and wastewater seepage”. Whatever the source, the water supply is distributed throughout the city to consumers and collected for wastewater disposal. Thus, the water can find various routes to recharge groundwater, such as over-irrigation of parks and gardens, leakage of water mains, and septic tanks. The infiltration of wastewater has significant quantitative resource benefits, storing the water in the aquifer for future use, but it also represents a potential health hazard because it can pollute the groundwater used for potable water supply (Foster and Chilton 2004 ). Thus, the recharge from the water supply system could range from 90% of the supply in unsewered cities to 10% in cities with exceptionally well-maintained mains and sewers (Lerner 1997 ).
In hydrological terms, excess rainfall increases the volume of water circulating in distribution systems, also in moderately humid areas. (Foster 1990 ). However, it is not easy to evaluate this recharge contribution due to the complexity of the city setting, the different ages of the distribution network components, and the possibility that lost water can be intercepted by sewers or tree roots. By way of cases studies, some authors have evaluated this recharge rate, such as for the cities of Lima (Perù) with a rate of 1400-1600 mm/a (Foster and Chilton 2004 ; Geake et al. 1986 ), Tokyo (Japan) with a rate of 440 mm/a (ARAI 1990 ), Birmingham (UK) with a rate of 180 mm/a (Lerner 1988 ), and Merida (Mexico) with a rate of about 600 mm/a (Foster et al. 1994 ). While not all methods used to evaluate recharge in natural systems can be extended to urban systems, the use of natural or artificial tracers and environmental isotopes have been successfully proposed by Vazquez-Sune et al. ( 2000 ); Vázquez-Suñé et al. ( 2010 ) for the city of Barcelona (Spain). The tracers used in this recharge quantification were Cl - , SO 4 2- , F - , N total , 18 O, 3 H, 34 S, D, Br, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), Zn, Ra and B.
Interaction between buried structures and groundwater
Urban buried structures disturb the natural flow and quality of groundwater. In their review, Attard et al. ( 2016b ) described lots of studies that deal with the individual impacts of underground structures on groundwater flow. They reported several approaches that developed sensitivity analysis or analytical solutions to quantify the barrier effect of impervious structures and the interaction (i.e., infiltration or exfiltration rate) between sewer and water supply networks. This is a typical situation where modeling approaches are able to show the spatial and temporal extent of groundwater disturbances generated by underground structures in the urban areas (Attard et al. 2016a ). One crucial issue in the city groundwater planning is the cascading effect of the possible modification of urban groundwater flow on groundwater quality and quantity.
Groundwater quality issues
Excluding the saltwater intrusion which is typical of CGC and LDGC, decreasing water quality and pollution of rivers and groundwater resources is one of the main threats to water sustainability in developed urban areas (Engel et al. 2011 ). However, it must be acknowledged that preventing pollution of shallow aquifers in urban areas is essentially difficult (Morris et al. 1997 ). In fact, as Burri et al. ( 2019 ) highlighted, “urban sprawl, globalized pharmaceutical production and consumption, insufficient wastewater infrastructure, shortage empirical data on water quality, and in some cases, the insufficient emphasis on groundwater as a renewable resource are indeed all hampering the complex process of managing groundwater quality”. Furthermore, groundwater quality problems typically evolve over long periods, and complication arises where groundwater is exploited by many private (sometimes illegal) boreholes, inadequately sited and poorly constructed with an inadequate sanitary seal. These practices can provide pathways for rapid downward migration of contaminants to deeper high-quality aquifers and conduits for cross-contamination (Eberts et al. 2013 ; Morris et al. 1997 ). The groundwater pollution due to urbanization processes is generally related to the diffusion of nitrogen compounds, a rising salinity level, and an elevated concentration of dissolved organic carbon. Moreover, many cases of petroleum compounds and chlorinated hydrocarbons are usually present as soil and groundwater contaminants, and sometimes also viruses and bacteria can be found. This is especially possible in urban residential districts without or with incomplete mains sewerage systems, where seepage from unsewered sanitation systems, as (e.g.) for the City of Lusaka (Zambia) (Adelana et al. 2008 ), probably represents the most widespread and severe diffuse pollution source (Foster et al. 1999 ).
In an urban setting, preferential pathways along pipelines, conduits, and old wells can also affect contaminant transfer and cross-contamination in groundwater. Underground gasoline storage tanks frequently leak, discharging gasoline into the subsurface. As it travels in sewer trenches, the pollutant can take a zigzagging course from one street to the next (Shanahan 2009 ). Moreover, as always Shanahan ( 2009 ) highlighted, “the disparate fill material used in many cities can create preferential pathways for groundwater flow and contaminant migration, as well as old wells can create preferential pathways for vertical flow, sometimes spreading contaminants from a contaminated shallow aquifer to deep uncontaminated aquifers; thus, subsurface infrastructure can have a significant but local effect on groundwater flow and contaminant transport and must be considered”. If NAPL (non-aqueous phase liquid) petroleum contaminants are frequently present in large cities’ shallow groundwater due to the many gasoline station tanks’ possible spills, much DNAPL (dense non-aqueous phase liquid) products such as chlorinated solvents were found also in many deeper city aquifers in the last decades. These contaminations usually derive from some industrial activities, sometimes no longer existing in the cities, but due to their long persistence in the aquifers are today again identifiable even in cities with no high industrial vocation, such as (e.g.) Rome (Italy) (Bonfà et al. 2017 ; La Vigna et al. 2019 ).
Moreover, according to Eberts et al. ( 2013 ), “human activities can cause local- and regional-scale changes in aquifer geochemical conditions and indirectly increase (or decrease) concentrations of natural contaminants in groundwater and water from public-supply wells: for example, groundwater near a landfill can have elevated concentrations of arsenic, yet the source of the arsenic is not the landfill’s contents; instead, the source is a geologic part of the solid aquifer material.” The combination of microorganisms’ activity in organic carbon degradation and derived anoxic conditions allows the release of Arsenic downgradient from the landfill.
In recent years, drugs of abuse (DAs) and their metabolites have been recognized as environmental contaminants. These compounds, which have been detected in the sewer systems and thus in groundwater of many cities (e.g. Barcelona, Spain) (Jurado et al. 2012 ) have become a significant cause for concern because of their occurrence and toxicity, and persistence are not well known.
Drought is a concern in many cities, and this issue is more evident also due to the increasing global warming, especially for those located in arid and semi-arid zones (ACGC), where it is expected that groundwater recharge will decrease consistently by 30 to 70% or even more (Van der Gun 2012 ). Accra (Ghana) and its hinterland exemplify an African city with chronic water shortages, where groundwater resources offer opportunities to improve resilience against recurring droughts and where water supply diversification is crucial (Grönwall and Oduro-Kwarteng 2018 ). In Mexico City (Mexico) (e.g.), over the decades, the rising, unsustainable (in the long term) demand for water has put enormous pressure on local and neighboring surface water and groundwater supply sources and has caused both economic and environmental damage. The now fully developed practice of importing water to meet urban demand, coupled with water scarcity, has led to a series of social and political conflicts over the distribution and management of water resources in the city (Mahlknecht et al. 2015 )
When aquifers are overexploited, pore pressure falls, and the ensuing aquifer compression can cause land subsidence or sinking of the earth surface (Engel et al. 2011 ). Subsidence issues related to groundwater extraction are present both in coastal and delta cities (CGC - LDGC) as previously cited, and interior parts of AGC such as Lhasa (China) (Ji-hui et al. 2005 ), Mexico City (Mexico), or Las Vegas (USA), where differential subsidence disrupts roads and infrastructure. In these contexts, subsidence may create flooding problems where it changes the slope of natural drainage pathways (Sharp Jr 1997 ). In New Orleans (USA), subsidence induced by groundwater withdrawals played a crucial role in the impacts associated with Hurricane Katrina (Jones et al. 2016 ). Shanahan ( 2009 ) reported as “in London (UK), the layer of London Clay has shrunk as it has become dewatered”, determining a lowering of the land surface in Central London by 20 to 25 cm since 1865 with a localized maximum settlement of about 50 cm (Downing 1994 ). As reported by Venvik et al. ( 2020 ), “for the Bryggen Wharf, in central Bergen (Norway), there is a strong link between water and subsidence due to reduction in the water content in the subsurface cultural-heritage layers and lowering of the groundwater levels, leading to the decay of organic layers as well as historical wooden foundations and thereby subsidence”.
Moreover, coastal cities subject to subsidence are typically more vulnerable to the climate-change effects on sea level. Rising sea level might aggravate saltwater intrusion and there could be impacts associated with extreme weather events, such as storms and floods (Maliva 2021 ). This is particularly evident in Jakarta (Indonesia), defined by Lyons ( 2015 ) as one of the "fastest-sinking cities", where the combined effects of land subsidence, also enhanced by groundwater overexploitation, and sea level rise, introduced other cascading effects such as the tidal flooding phenomena (Abidin et al. 2010 ).
Groundwater heat island effect
The temperature regime is more complex in the urban subsurface environment than in rural, less disturbed environments. According to Epting and Huggenberger ( 2012 ), “thermal groundwater regimes in urban areas are affected by several anthropogenic changes, such as surface sealing or subsurface constructions and groundwater use. Moreover, the extension of subsurface structures and the diffuse heat input of heated buildings have resulted in elevated groundwater temperatures being observed in many urban areas”, such as (e.g.) in Tokyo (Japan) (Taniguchi et al. 1999 ), in Winnipeg (Canada) (Ferguson and Woodbury 2004 ), in Cologne and Munich (Germany) (Menberg et al. 2013 ; Zhu et al. 2010 ), in Istanbul (Turkey) (Yalcin and Yetemen 2009 ), in Jakarta (Indonesia) (Lubis et al. 2013 ), and in Basel (Switzerland) (Epting and Huggenberger 2012 ). Understanding groundwater heat transport is essential for the design, performance analysis, and impact assessment of thermal devices (Epting and Huggenberger 2012 ), but also for the environment. According to Zhu et al. ( 2010 ) “factors that cause the urban heat island effect in the subsurface are similar to those that increase surface air temperature, such as indirect solar heating by the massive and complex urban structures, anthropogenic heat losses, and land-use change; moreover, the anthropogenic thermal impacts are more persistent in the subsurface because of the slow conduction properties of the subsoil; this extra heat stored in urban aquifers is sometimes considered underground thermal pollution”. That is because thermal anomalies can sometimes change the groundwater chemical balance and the groundwater-rock interaction and facilitate pollutants dissolution, mineral weathering, chemical adsorption, and desorption, gas solubility, and microbial redox processes (Saito et al. 2016 ), but also can change very precarious balances in urban groundwater-dependent ecosystems.
Sustainable and virtuous uses of urban groundwater and its related value
There are some general best practices which are already presented in the Introduction , which are valid in all city types and contexts, and are as follows: developing a city-scale groundwater monitoring network; having a city-scale hydrogeological map and or a 3D groundwater model; and, increasing citizens’ and administrators’ awareness of matters related to groundwater, making it visible.
Intending to understand the resilience value for cities in taking advantage of sustainable and virtuous groundwater uses, some specific best practices and examples of groundwater-related resources are presented as follows.
Marginal groundwater exploitation
“Poor groundwater” is that resource that cannot be utilized for traditional supply exploitation, as it is the water of contaminated (both by human activities and by natural contaminants) aquifers or that of saline aquifers. In some cities, incentives for exploiting this lower-quality groundwater for non-potable private or industrial uses are required (Morris et al. 1997 ). In Eindhoven (The Netherlands) (e.g.) Sommer et al. ( 2013 ) argued that “combining aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) and groundwater remediation can be beneficial for both. From the ATES point of view, it opens opportunities for application in contaminated areas. From a remediation point of view, it could help to accelerate groundwater quality improvement.” The most common use of these poor groundwaters is related to industrial processes and mainly with saline water.
Instead, a “poor aquifer” can be defined as an aquifer from which the groundwater exploitation is no longer convenient, attractive, or possible for multiple reasons. It is the case (e.g.) of the proposal made by Gambolati and Teatini ( 2013 ) for the historic city of Venice (Italy), which is subject to periodic flooding, also due to subsidence, which with climate change and rising sea levels will become increasingly frequent and of ever greater magnitude. The proposal consisted of injecting seawater into the deep saline confined aquifers at a depth of about 650-1000 m to increase the deep pressure and thus obtain a slow and homogeneous ground rising of about 25-30 cm in approximately ten years.
Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) and managed aquifer recharge (MAR)
Even if the groundwater is not used for water supply, urban aquifers are a potential storage location for stormwater, reducing surface runoff from impervious areas (Göbel et al. 2004 ). Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) and aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) are processes enhanced by humans that convey water underground to replenish aquifers. Although the terms MAR and ASR are often used interchangeably, they are separate processes with distinct objectives (EPA 2021 ). MAR is used to replenish water in aquifers with an intentional action but taking advantage of the natural geological predisposition to infiltrate water. ASR is a technique where water is artificially injected into aquifers during periods of excess water availability and withdrawn from aquifer storage when needed (Sharp Jr 1997 ). These techniques are widely and successfully applied in Australian cities like Adelaide (Dillon et al. 2002 ) and Melburne (Dillon et al. 2010 ; Mudd et al. 2004 ). According to USGS ( 2018 ), “spreading basins are the primary technique used for artificial recharge; ideally, basins are located adjacent to natural streams, have sand or gravel beds, and good hydrologic connection to a well-defined, high-storage-capacity aquifer. Aquifer injection wells are instead designed to place recharge water directly into an aquifer; the same wells may be used for recovery. In general, water quality requirements are highest for aquifer injection.”
In many countries, these presented methods are still considered new technologies. Overall, the policies and legal framework applicable to aquifer recharge are scarce and at an early stage, especially in developing countries (Escalante et al. 2020 ).
Sustainable drainage systems (SuDS) and green infrastructure
With due differences between cities, paved surfaces are some of the most common components found in the urban environment. These surfaces normally increase the surface runoff and significantly decrease infiltration and evapotranspiration (Burri et al. 2019 ). De-sealing means restoring the natural soil infiltration capacity (Naumann et al. 2019 ). The objective can be reached using several techniques used in those commonly named green infrastructure systems whose effect is to allow regular or additional recharge.
Green infrastructure refers to green spaces linked together continuously, and they have more recently emerged as a set of stormwater management instruments that complement gray infrastructure; in fact, they mitigate the stormwater effects on the urban surface by taking advantage of soil and vegetation properties to enhance water infiltration (Berland et al. 2017 ). Examples of green infrastructure include rain gardens or bio-retention areas, permeable pavements, bioswales, green roofs, stormwater curb cutouts (Berland et al. 2017 ). As reported by Armson et al. ( 2013 ), “incorporating trees into urban landscapes can substantially reduce stormwater runoff by improving infiltration; in Manchester (UK), tree pits containing small trees reduced runoff from asphalt control plots by 62%”. Moreover, Hollis and Ovenden ( 1988 ), argued that “there was a marked reduction in salinity and increase in dissolved oxygen concentrations in the upper part of the aquifer downgradient of the infiltration basins; concentrations of toxic metals, nutrients, pesticides, and phenolic compounds in groundwater near the infiltration basins were lower than upgradient.”
Groundwater-dependent ecosystems protection
According to Bricker et al. ( 2017 ),” the multiple functions that ecosystem services provide concerning the ground beneath urban areas are increasingly recognized by city practitioners. For example, groundwater provides multiple services, primarily for potable water supply and by diluting and attenuating contaminants and acting as a medium for exploiting ground heat”. Nevertheless, from an environmental and ecosystem sustainability perspective, the groundwater resource is almost completely overlooked. Groundwater’s critical ecological functions are almost universally unrecognized and unheeded, although groundwater provides base flows to springs, streams, lakes, wetlands, and areas of phreatophytes, and the average contribution of groundwater to surface water supplies amounts to approximately 50% (Guo et al. 2011 ).
Urban groundwater-dependent ecosystems can be the natural river banks themselves and any surface water body directly connected with groundwater dynamics. From an urban resilience perspective, groundwater-dependent ecosystems in a city decrease the heat island effects and decrease the pressure of heavy rainfall and river floods due to the natural soil presence and the above-vegetated surface.
Low-enthalpy geothermal energy
Subsurface temperatures are often higher below cities and thus, urban groundwater is a valuable energy reservoir (Schirmer et al. 2013 ). Heat pump installations could exploit this significant geothermal potential (Allen et al. 2003 ; Zhu et al. 2010 ) but in contexts where many closed and open-loop geothermal energy systems coexist, thermal interference is possible between adjacent systems. Moreover, the thermal interference in an urban context may occur also due to the proximity to buried services and structures, sewerage, and water withdrawal. According to Patton et al. ( 2020 ), “a paucity of baseline temperature data from urban aquifers could also determine poor system design and performance, in this perspective urban groundwater monitoring networks are required to increase confidence for investors while supporting evidence-based regulatory targets”. Groundwater temperature city maps, as performed (e.g.) in Cardiff (UK) (Farr et al. 2017 ) and Rome (Italy) (La Vigna et al. 2015a ), are handy tools for city planners who want to manage groundwater low-enthalpy thermal uses efficiently.
Are urban groundwater management and knowledge playing a role in city resilience? To answer this question, it is necessary to recall the city resilience aspects and keywords proposed in the Introduction . It is thus necessary to understand if the groundwater services provided to a city area are essential and what happens to the city in case of shocks and/or stresses related to such services, and on the other hand, to evaluate the recovery capacity and preparedness of a city system to mitigate any one of these possible issues. The presented city groundwater types and the possible issues and best measures to put into practice are summarized and compared in Table. 2 . The table presents both general groundwater-related issues which are possible in every city, and issues more specific for the single city category. Moreover, both the general best practices valid for every city and some more specific practices are listed.
The presented issues can affect different city functions. In the work of Morris et al. ( 1997 ) several analyses were developed to list the benefits and costs in urban use of the subsurface environment and urban groundwater problems and management requirements. With a similar approach, in Table 3 , some possible cascading effects due to the groundwater services’ interruption in a city are proposed.
Analysis of Table 3 shows how the conjunctive use of different sources provides more redundancy and thus higher resilience for a city. Highly centralized, single-source systems may lack the flexibility to meet unexpected events, such as natural disasters. Surface waters (e.g.) can become contaminated with unexpected pollutants (due to flooding, industrial accident, nasty spills, or sabotage). If such contamination occurs, if treatment plants malfunction or reservoir levels drop below intake levels, the urban water system depending solely upon a few large surface reservoirs or a few large intakes, becomes essentially inoperable (Sharp Jr 1997 ). For example, it is possible to cite the recent Cape Town (South Africa) water supply crisis of 2017-2018, when a drought caused severe resource depletion and consequent domestic supply restriction (Olivier and Xu 2019 ). This situation, as stated by Foster et al. ( 2020 ), “is a classic example of what can arise under climatic stress, where a major municipal water-service utility relies exclusively on a sizeable surface-water reservoir and has not diversified its sources to include local groundwater systems”.
It is thus possible to figure out (Table 4 ) the characteristics of a groundwater-resilient city (GWRC) and try to imagine what happens in an ideal city system that developed all possible virtuous practices related to local groundwater systems. In essence, the table is constructed by putting together the keywords of the urban resilience concepts mentioned in the Introduction and the presented hydrological dynamics. The table consolidates the view that, of these keywords, preparedness and groundwater awareness of the cities’ citizens and administrators are very effective actions for a groundwater-virtuous city. In this sense, defining an urban groundwater virtual "helpdesk" could be a good practice to increase citizens’ awareness. It would require periodical update of groundwater information in an accessible manner. e.g., dynamic websites with updated monitoring information, and annual groundwater reports are a means to meet this goal.
Shanahan ( 2009 ) defined groundwater as the ultimate "out of sight, out of mind" resource. It is difficult and expensive to monitor and manage, and there is usually no oversight until some crisis intervenes. According to Coaffee and Lee ( 2016 ), “prior system management has not provided resilience: groundwater has boomeranged through different problems at different times, even changing from an essential resource in preindustrial cities to a nuisance in post-industrial cities. Groundwater is a problem in considerable measure because it is "out of sight and out of mind." The public and even decision-makers know little about the state of the groundwater resource.” As a result, poor groundwater quality or level changes might persist for years or decades without being addressed or even discovered. As previously presented, many cities monitor groundwater levels regularly; if visualized and publicly shared, such information could remedy the out-of-sight, out-of-mind problem and allow for more resilient management of the resource. Groundwater data may be accessed and visualized easily, allowing city technicians and management to assess effects and make real-time adjustments and decisions, while more readily available data could be critical in educating the public and ensuring a more secure groundwater supply. Moreover, citizens can be aware of the groundwater resources under the city and thus put into practice protection and sustainable behaviors.
As highlighted by Grönwall and Oduro-Kwarteng ( 2018 ) “groundwater can gain a role as a strategic resource where an integrated approach to urban water management and governance acknowledges the importance of all available resources and moves away from the focus on extensive infrastructure and centralized water supply solutions”. In this perspective diversifying the sources is a very useful practice for a city to be more resilient, reducing vulnerability and enhancing preparedness.
Several methods have been proposed in the last decades to achieve integrated groundwater management (IGM) (Jakeman et al. 2016 ). These methods are essentially based on an approach that holistically considers the broader context of surface water links, catchment management, and inter-sectoral issues with economics, energy, climate, agriculture, and the environment (Jakeman et al. 2016 ). The IGM for a city area also needs to consider the anthropic presence and thus the relationships with the urban system and the city life. In Australia, the Water Sensitive City (WSC) and the Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) programs started in the 21st century, to bring a range of benefits that, at the same time, protect the degradation of urban water resources and manage and recycle stormwater, so that cities become more sustainable, liveable and resilient. In practice, the WSUD integrates stormwater, groundwater water supply, and wastewater management (Ashley et al. 2013 ; Brown et al. 2009 ). One of the most recent approaches of IGM in urban contexts is proposed for some Chinese cities by Nguyen et al. ( 2019 ) with the Sponge City concept. It is based on four principal concepts that are:
Making the city soil more permeable to absorb and store rainwater and supply water and mitigate stormwater runoff
Managing the water by self-purification systems and ecologically friendly waterfront design (blue infrastructure)
Developing green infrastructure to restore, purify and reuse stormwater
Constructing and using permeable roads
Notwithstanding the sound principles of the Sponge City program, the latter could not be so easy to develop in some countries due to the local legislation that imposes treatment of rainwater circulation above road surfaces.
Looking at the review carried out in this paper it is possible to say that the global vision of cities should consider the relationship with surface water and groundwater. However, as stated by Howard et al. ( 2015 ) “the strategic importance of urban groundwater is not yet always reflected by sufficient investment in management and protection of the resource base; in this context, groundwater professionals need to raise awareness of the economic value of groundwater and reveal critical issues in the political economy of resource governance”.
Rachwal 2014 ) proposed their vision called ‘Cities and the Underworld', which “deals directly with groundwater systems and highlights a future where infrastructure is increasingly built underground in cities, and where the subsurface is more effectively managed to deliver adequate drainage, water storage, heating, and cooling”. These are the first strictly related benefits of correct groundwater management, but as presented before, the positive cascading effects on the cities are much more due to the high level of interdependences of city life with groundwater. Moreover, Foster et al. ( 2020 ), highlighted that a “better use of water storage will be critical for water-supply security, and groundwater stored in aquifers offers sustainable solutions for climate change adaptation, at the scale of specific cities and their hinterland catchments”.
Therefore, the answer to the question asked earlier in the discussion is: yes, groundwater plays a significant role in cities’ resilience, and, as stated by Bricker et al. ( 2017 ), “there is a growing body of evidence highlighting the importance of groundwater to support urban living and the impact of urbanism on natural groundwater systems”. Consequently, it should be considered by city planners as one crucial aspect in every resilience assessment and strategy. There are many benefits obtained from sustainable groundwater use in cities: the economic value derived from productive uses for drinking water, industry, and garden irrigation; the ecological value provided by supporting urban groundwater-dependent ecosystems; the option value of storing groundwater as an insurance against future water shortages (Grönwall and Oduro-Kwarteng 2018 ), as well as against fire hazard. Through the clustering proposed, cities could more easily be grouped worldwide by typology and thus compared with respect to groundwater issues and opportunities in common. Therefore, city planners could more easily assess the relative groundwater-adaptation strategies and best practices to raise the resilience of cities.
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La Vigna, F. Review: Urban groundwater issues and resource management, and their roles in the resilience of cities. Hydrogeol J 30 , 1657–1683 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-022-02517-1
Received : 15 September 2021
Accepted : 28 June 2022
Published : 05 August 2022
Issue Date : September 2022
DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-022-02517-1
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How to Add Refrigerant to a 2011 Dodge Journey Mainstreet 3.6L V6 FlexFuel
Dodge journey model years - 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019.
1. Getting Started - Prepare for AC recharge
2. Open the Hood - How to pop the hood and prop it open
3. Locate AC Port - How to access the AC low pressure port and low pressure port cap
4. Air Conditioning Recharge - Safely add freon to your AC system
5. Replace Cap - Replace the AC low pressure port cap
6. More Info. - Additional thoughts on recharging your A/C system
- Lake Chevy helped make these videos
- Download Dodge owners manuals
When the air conditioner in your 2011 Dodge Journey starts blowing hot air, you likely have a freon leak. Recharging the freon in your AC system is an inexpensive and easy first step to restoring the cooling capacity of your A/C system. Most refrigerants include a leak sealer that will seal small leaks in addition to filling the R134a freon. The A/C system in your Journey consists of a compressor that is belt-driven, an evaporator and freon. If there is a problem with your compressor or evaporator, adding freon will not restore cooling.
How do you recharge AC in a 2011 Dodge Journey? The low side AC port location is the first thing to find when you are looking for how to put freon in a car. Once you find the 2011 Journey AC low pressure port cap, hook up the can of refrigerant to the low pressure port. When your compressor kicks on, add freon to the correct pressure. In addition to cooling, freon lubricates the compressor when it runs. Typically the AC recharge kit you buy will have enough capacity to add enough freon to get the AC in your Journey to blow cold air.
What type of refrigerant does a 2011 Dodge Journey use? Air conditioning systems can vary so it is critical that you check the sticker in the engine bay to determine your Journey refrigerant type. There is an AC sticker in the engine bay of your 2011 Journey that indicates if it requires R134a refrigerant or the newer R1234YF type to do a recharge. You cannot add R1234YF refrigerant to a R134a system nor can you add R134a refrigerant to a R1234YF system. R134a and R1234YF have different low pressure port types, so you should never use a recharge adapter to add the wrong type of refrigerant. Recharging your Journey with the wrong type of freon can make the AC recharge cost much higher!
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What is a MoSCoW Analysis? Definition, Use Guide, and Analysis
By Paul VanZandt
Published on: July 26, 2023
Table of Content
What is a Moscow Analysis?
Moscow analysis use guide, how to do a moscow analysis.
Prioritization and organization are two essential elements in creating a successful project and are also things that are inherently harder to achieve online. While prioritizing elements can be hard online, it doesn’t have to be. The Moscow analysis is a great tool for teams to collaborate on through online whiteboards and has takeaways that are applicable to a variety of different projects and teams.
In this article, we will define the Moscow analysis and talk about what makes it so helpful to teams everywhere. If you are interested in reading some of our other template guides, you can check out our most recent guides on design thinking and using a business model canvas here.
A Moscow analysis , also known as Moscow prioritization, is defined as an organizational framework that helps clarify and prioritize features or requirements for a given project. By creating boundaries for the priorities, teams are able to narrow their focus and create direct and achievable goals.
Moscow is an acronym that stands for the four categories that various features can be sorted into. These categories are: Must have, Should have, Could have, and Won’t have These four categories determine the prioritization of the corresponding features and are a marker of their importance to the overall success and continuity of the project.
- Must-haves: These are the essential requirements that must be included in the project or product. If any of these requirements are not met, the project or product cannot be considered successful.
- Should-haves: These are important requirements that should be included if possible. They are not absolutely critical but add significant value to the project or product.
- Could-haves: These are requirements that are nice to have, but they are not critical. They can be considered if time and resources allow but can be deferred if necessary.
- Won’t-haves: These are requirements that are explicitly out of scope for the current project or product. These requirements are not currently under consideration.
While the Moscow analysis is most often used to organize a project and its required elements, it can also be used in other scenarios . For example, Moscow prioritization can be applied to better align a team with its values and expectations. It can also be used to prioritize takeaways and next steps from an important meeting. Its main goal is the help visualize the prioritization of the tasks at hand.
These use cases demonstrate the flexibility of the Moscow prioritization to break down important requirements into simple prioritized areas, whether it be for team expectations or a project sprint.
As previously stated, the Moscow analysis consists of four major elements. These categories are explained below alongside some questions to guide what should be included in each category. For the sake of simplicity, we will use a project prioritization for reference.
This section is where you think about the core features that are necessary to the success of the project. Must have features are things that, if absent, would compromise the project as a whole. Without these features, the project would have an entirely different function and wouldn’t serve the intended purpose.
Must have features, while being the most important things to consider, should not account for every detail that will be present in the final version. The features in must have, should have, and could have should all be major considerations to be included in the project, so try and be very specific with the features you add in each section.
Some prompting questions to ask in this section could be:
- What features are absolutely essential and cannot be replaced?
- If removed, would the project achieve the same purpose?
- Will the delivery of the project be a success without this feature?
Should have is where the project begins to become more nuanced in its prioritization. Should have features include those that are supplemental to the must have features, things customers have vocalized interest in, and other features that would make meaningful additions to the project.
Should have features should be thought of as just a step below must have. These features, while important, could be pushed to a later release while the must have features are absolutely essential. Without these things, the project will still work, but it will be better with them.
Some prompting questions to ask in this section could be;
- How does this feature compare to the must have features? What about the could have features?
- What is a helpful but not required feature?
- How would the project function if this feature is omitted?
Could have features are often misunderstood and get lumped with random possible additions. This section is meant to highlight features that you want to include but aren’t sure if they will be possible.
Could have features are even a step lower on the prioritization of should have features due to either time or substantive restraints. These are features that would be nice additions, but might not directly impact the core function of the product.
- What would be a useful tool to add that isn’t a priority?
- What is something that you’d like to add in the future?
- How would this feature impact the overall product?
Won’t have is one of the most important sections in the analysis. It defines all of the features and points that specifically will not be included in the project release. This section is critical because it narrows the scope of the project greatly and helps define the boundaries that must be followed to achieve a successful project.
In order to have a helpful won’t have section, you need to plan not only the project you’re working on but future projects and parallel endeavors as well. By thinking about what comes in the future and what exists outside of the current release, you are able to narrow the scope of the current project.
- What features will be purposefully left out of this project?
- What is being avoided or postponed for a future release?
- What features fall outside of this releases specific scope?
Learn more: SWOT Analysis Framework
MOSCOW analysis helps teams make informed decisions about what to prioritize and what can be deferred or excluded, leading to more effective project or product development. Here’s how to perform a MOSCOW analysis:
- Identify Stakeholders: Gather the key stakeholders and decision-makers involved in the project or product development. It’s essential to have a clear understanding of their needs and expectations.
- List Requirements or Features: Make a comprehensive list of all the potential requirements or features that have been proposed for the project or product. This list can come from user stories, feature requests, or other sources.
- Categorize Requirements: For each requirement or feature, categorize it into one of the four MOSCOW categories (Must-have, Should-have, Could-have, or Won’t-have). You can do this collaboratively with the stakeholders, using their input to make informed decisions.
- Prioritize Must-Haves: Focus on the “Must-have” category and ensure that these requirements are prioritized above all else. These are the non-negotiable elements of the project.
- Prioritize Should-Haves: Once the Must-haves are defined, move on to the “Should-have” category and prioritize these based on their relative importance and impact on the project or product.
- Consider Could-Haves: Evaluate the “Could-have” category and decide which of these features or requirements are feasible to include, given the available resources and time.
- Exclude Won’t-Haves: Ensure that the “Won’t-have” category is clearly communicated and understood. These are the features or requirements that will not be addressed in the current project or product.
- Document the Analysis: Record the results of the MOSCOW analysis in a document or spreadsheet so that all stakeholders have a clear understanding of the prioritization decisions.
- Review and Iterate: Periodically review and update the MOSCOW analysis as the project or product evolves. Changes in scope or stakeholder priorities may necessitate adjustments.
Learn more: What is PESTEL Analysis?
Using a Moscow analysis is one of the best ways to improve the alignment of a team and understand the prioritization of the project at hand. While these templates are mainly used for product management, they are extremely versatile and can be applied to many different scenarios .
Hopefully, this guide has been helpful, and if so make sure to check out our other posts around online whiteboards and visual collaboration if you want to learn more about how to interact and collaborate online.
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